Walleyes are known for their marble-like eyes, which let them see well in dim light. Their retina has a layer of reflective pigment, called the tapetum lucidum, that intensifies any light the eye receives. (It's the same membrane that causes a cat's eyes to glow yellow.) But the walleye's close relative, the sauger, has even better night vision because the tapetum covers a much larger portion of its retinas.

Ever wonder where the term "black bass" came from? The fry of smallmouth bass turn coal black within a few days after they hatch. Even though the fry of largemouth and other bass species do not turn black, all members of the group (genus Micropterus) are referred to as black bass.

Researchers studying walleye vision found that orange is the color most visible to walleyes, followed by yellow and yellow green. Surprisingly, red is the least visible color. No wonder you find so many orange and chartreuse lures in the tackle boxes of savvy walleye anglers.

White and striped bass are members of the temperate bass family, as opposed to black bass, which belong to the sunfish family. The term "temperate bass" refers to the moderate water temperature preference of members of this family. As a rule, they prefer temperatures a little lower than those preferred by largemouth or smallmouth bass.

Trout are the only kind of fish with an adipose fin, right? Wrong. Several other fish species, including catfish, bullheads, madtoms, smelt, ciscoes and whitefish, also have an adipose fin (the small fin on the back just in front of the tail).

Flathead catfish have a tooth pad consisting of hundreds of tiny, recurved teeth on the roof of their mouth. The pad helps them hold their prey securely, so it can't wiggle around and escape. So if you're inclined to stick your hand into a flathead's mouth to dislodge your hook, forget it. You might pull your hand out minus the skin.

Flatheads are often called mud cats, giving anglers the impression that they scavenge dead food items off the bottom. But flatheads are more apt to eat live fish than any other catfish species. Channel cats are most likely to consume dead, stinky food (and bait) and blue cats are intermediate in their food preference.

Members of the sturgeon family are the largest fish inhabiting the fresh waters of North America-and some are also among the smallest. The white sturgeon, which is found in rivers along the Pacific Coast, has been known to reach a weight of almost a ton, and today's anglers of the Pacific Northwest commonly catch whites in the 200- to 300-pound range. Shovelnoses, on the other hand, seldom exceed a few pounds in weight in their Midwestern home waters.

The very best time to catch a trophy walleye is five to seven weeks after the fish have completed spawning. That's when the big females, famished after not having eaten for nearly two months, go on the prowl for food. And with the natural supply of baitfish at its annual low, they're likely to hit almost anything you throw at them.

An international team of scientists has confirmed that the dorado catfish (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) of the Amazon River basin holds the record for the world's longest exclusively freshwater fish migration, an epic life-cycle journey stretching nearly the entire width of the South America continent.

You might have noticed that some fish pulled from deep water can be released and will swim right back down, but others have trouble descending. That's because some fish (physostomous species like trout) can "burp" air as they're being pulled up, relieving the gas build-up in their swim bladders, while others (physoclistous species like walleyes) do not have a connection between the swim bladder and the gut, so their swim bladders expand, greatly increasing their buoyancy

On June 2nd, 1932, George Perry caught the current world record bass out of Lake Montgomery, an oxbow lake off the Ocmulgee River in southern Georgia. The fish (the whopper) weighed 22 pounds, 4 ounces.

Redear sunfish are called shellcrackers in some parts of their range because of their habit of eating aquatic snails, which they crush with special grinding teeth in their throat. Where snails are scarce, redears will forage on various small crustaceans, insects and fish fry.

One of the least known but most effective baits for trout is the water worm, which is the larval form of the crane fly (those big, slow-moving bugs that look like giant mosquitoes). You can often find water worms by digging through the mud and sticks of a beaver dam on your favorite trout stream.

Water dogs, which are the larval form of a tiger salamander, make good bait for bass, walleyes and pike. But once the young salamanders lose their gills and turn into adults, they don't work nearly as well. To prevent water dogs intended for bait from developing into adults, keep them refrigerated in water at a temperature of no more than 50 degrees.

You've probably heard that it's safe to walk on 3 inches of ice or drive a car on 10 inches. But is the ice ever really safe? No! Schools of carp can gather under the ice and wear it away, occasionally even opening a hole. And groundwater might well up from the depths and melt the ice, as famously happened on several Minnesota lakes during the winter of 2002-2003.

Not sure if that big salmon you caught is a coho or a chinook? Just grab it around the base of the tail and try to lift it. If it slips through your fingers, it's probably a coho; if it doesn't, it's a chinook. The bony structure of a chinook's tail is much more rigid, making it easier to "tail" the fish.

THC edibles appear to have no effect on fish. Scientists in Lebanon fed tilapia pellets laced with cannabis oil to see if cannabinoids would have a calming effect on fish. Their conclusion: Unlike other pets such as dogs and cats, fish feel no such high on THC

Pike and muskies are both classified as cool-water fish, but there is a definite difference in the water temperature they prefer, especially among the larger members of each species. Pike more than 30 inches long favor water temperatures from 50 to 55 degrees, while muskies prefer temperatures of 67 to 72 degrees. Another big difference: Pike feed actively throughout the year and are a popular target of ice fishermen. Muskies feed much more sporadically in winter and are rarely caught by ice anglers.

Would you believe that the gender of a baitfish could make a big difference in your fishing success? A male fathead minnow, which has a black head covered with spawning tubercles in spring, is much less effective than a female fathead, which is more silvery and apparently exudes a more attractive odor to walleyes, pike and other game fish.

Some fish lay their eggs on land instead of in the water. The mudskipper even takes this further, even mating on land. These fish burrow and lay their eggs in mudflats before returning to the water.

Morning those who want to fish, statewide trout fishing has begun today in Washington lakes AND fishing for chinook has also started today in the idaho on the Little Salmon and lower Salmon rivers near Riggins and on the Snake River in Hells Canyon.

Though their names may suggest otherwise, cuttlefish, starfish, and jellyfish aren't actually fish. Generally-speaking, fishes must have skulls, gills, and fins. Surprisingly, though, not all fishes have proper spines.

The "ear" of a sunfish is really not an ear at all, but merely an extension of the gill cover that varies in color from species to species. The redear sunfish, for example, gets its name from the distinct red margin on its ear.

Everyone knows that smallmouth bass love rocks, but in waters where the bottom is almost all rock, they could be anywhere. In such lakes or rivers, smallmouths will often gravitate to dissimilar structure such as a sandy bottom with weeds or wood cover.

Although most anglers believe muskies are voracious feeders, consuming just about everything in sight, they're actually much less aggressive than pike. Muskies are considerably more selective, and will examine your offering more closely. They'll often follow a bait for a distance and then turn away at the last second without striking. A pike, on the other hand, will attack practically any kind of lure or bait that happens to pass its way.

Eels can live for 70 years or more – depending on the specie though most species of eel don't live for more than 30 years.

Sure, there's a lot of water out there, but only a relatively small portion of it suits bluegills for their various purposes. If you spot abandoned bluegill spawning beds along a shoreline while you're out fishing this summer, remember their locations. Unlike some other fish, bluegills will return to the same beds year after year, providing water conditions are the same. Mark the spots on a map, and you'll get a leg up on other anglers when spawning season arrives.

Of all the freshwater game fish, rock bass are the best chameleons, meaning that they can quickly change color to match their surroundings. On light, sandy bottoms, they're usually light tan, but on dark bottoms, they might be brownish black in color.

Blue catfish are supposed to be, well, blue, but Katie Purvis Johns of Denham Springs, Louisiana, landed a rare all-white blue catfish at the Bonnet Carré Spillway April 24, near New Orleans.She had to battle the blue catfish carefully because the spillway has concrete structures in the water that the fish easily could have wrapped the line around and broken free. She worked the fish close to shore, knowing it was a large blue catfish. So she was more than surprised when the fish turned out to be all-white. They weighed the fish at 19 pounds, and it measured 35 inches long. They were all puzzled about its white color, and believed it was an albino fish. But the cat didn't have pink eyes, so they contacted the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. "We found out it is an all-white, leucistic blue catfish," Johns said. "Which is a pretty rare catch."

Earth's longest chain of mountains, the Mid-Ocean Ridge, is almost entirely beneath the ocean, stretching across a distance of 65,000 kilometres. It's said that this mountain chain is less explored than the surface of Venus or Mars.

There are three different types of coral reef formations—barrier reefs, coral atolls, and fringing reefs. Barrier reefs help to protect lagoons and other types of shallow water, coral atolls (which are often mistaken for islands) are made from volcanic remains, and fringing reefs are found right along the coastline.

There's around 20 million tons of gold dispersed throughout the oceans. It is, however, diluted pretty much to a pulp—its concentration is only a few parts per trillion, according to the National Ocean Service. The ocean floor also has undissolved gold embedded in it, but it's not cost-effective to mine it. However, if the ocean's gold were equally distributed among every person on earth, we'd each receive nine pounds of gold.

Giant kelp can live up to seven years. Factors such as the severity of winter storms may affect its life span. Its average growth (in spring) is 27 cm/day (~10 inches/day), yet it may grow up to 61 cm/day (2 ft/day).

The Largest Deep Sea Fish Is Called Greenland Shark, which has a length of 6.4 meters. Often mistaken for Great White Sharks because of their massive size, they reach up to 24 feet (7.2 meter) in length and weigh up to 3,100 lbs (1,400 kg). Greenland Sharks have a voracious appetite and will eat almost anything. Typically they eat eels, lumpfish, flounder, and other small sharks, but they will also eat carrion, the meat of dead animals. They have also been known to eat land animals. Greenland Sharks have been found with a polar bear jaw, an entire reindeer, horse bones, and a moose hide in their stomachs. Greenland Sharks are rarely observed in the wild. It wasn't until 1995 that scientists were able to capture the first pictures of a Greenland Shark swimming in its natural habitat.

Fish use a variety of low-pitched sounds to convey messages to each other. They moan, grunt, croak, boom, hiss, whistle, creak, shriek, and wail. They rattle their bones and gnash their teeth. However, fish do not have vocal chords. They use other parts of their bodies to make noises, such as vibrating muscles against their swim bladder.

The harp sponge captures their prey, such as copepods and other crustaceans, with the velcro-like hooks on their external body surfaces. Once the hooks have ensnared the sponge's prey, it secretes a digestive membrane that surrounds and engulfs the captured prey, breaking it down until the sponge can absorb it through its pores. Terrifying and beautiful at the same time.

Fish have sleep-like periods where they have lowered response to stimuli, slowed physical activity, and reduced metabolism but they do not share the same changes in brain waves as humans do when they sleep.

Many anglers believe that pike lose their teeth in the summer and don't bite. In fact, both pike and muskies continually shed old teeth and grow new ones. While it's true that pike fishing often gets tough during the summer months, the poor bite is probably related to a glut of baitfish or the fact that pike often move into deeper, cooler water as the summer progresses.

It turns out, humans aren't the only creatures in need of a winter vacation. In 2002, scientists discovered an area in a remote part of the Pacific Ocean, partway between Baja California and Hawaii, where typically coastal great white sharks will migrate to in the winter. The scientists named the spot the White Shark Café and some sharks hang around the area for months before heading back to the coast for warmer weather.

If you're a fish, there's nothing more irritating than a blood-sucking parasite stopping you from having a good night's sleep. That's exactly why Parrotfish go to extreme lengths to prevent this from happening.Every night before going to sleep, Parrotfish secrete a mucus cocoon that envelops their entire bodies with a protective biopolymer – something similar to a mosquito net. The genius thing about it is that this net lets small molecules to pass through, but blocks anything larger (i.e. bloodsucking parasites). Oh, and the whole process only takes the Parrotfish around 2.5% of its daily energy budget. Not too pricey for a good night's sleep!

Scientists think the first fishes evolved from sea squirts. Their main evidence for this is how fish larvae resemble sea squirts in appearance. Sea squirts are invertebrates that attach themselves to a solid surface like a rock instead of swimming around. They also feed passively by filtering water that passes through their bodies. In those senses, they're closer to coral than fishes.

Two species of jawless fishes still live in the present day. Among these jawless fish species are lampreys or long, eel-like fishes with round mouths lined with teeth. They latch onto the sides of bigger fish like trout and inject special chemicals to keep the wound from healing. As the fish bleeds, the lamprey sucks up the blood to feed itself. Definitely one of the more disturbing fish facts

Not all experts agree, but at top speeds of nearly 70 mph, the sailfish is widely considered the fastest fish in the ocean. Clocked at speeds in excess of 68 mph , some experts consider the sailfish the fastest fish in the world ocean

An Australian lungfish in an aquarium at Chicago managed to live for 84 years, from 1933 to 2017. Interestingly, it died not because of natural causes, but because the aquarium staff euthanized it as extreme old age caused pain to the fish. That said, it's entirely possible it might have lived longer.

North Atlantic right whales gather small organisms near the water surface, straining seawater with their long baleen plates. The whales' surface feeding behavior and buoyancy make them vulnerable to collisions.

The sea snail makes up a majority of snail species. More diverse than land snails, sea snails come in many shapes and sizes. Though they usually come in spiral shells, some sea snails have conical or bivalve-shaped shells. Most of them have gills, but some have lungs and only stay active during the low tide

It takes lobsters an average of 5 to 7 years (depending on the water temperature) to grow to legal size, and they grow more slowly as they get larger. Therefore a lobster that weighs 3 pounds is an estimated 15-20 years old, and a 25 pound lobster would be approximately 75-100 years old.

Just two vestiges of ice remain from our planet's last ice age: the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The latter of the two is staggering in size. Clocking in at 5.4 million square miles, according to the National Snow & Ice Data Center (NSIDC), it's roughly the size of the continental United States and Mexico combined!

No species of dumbo octopus discovered has a functional ink sac. This is very peculiar because the ink sac is a trait that is found in most species of octopus and squid. In fact, it is a defining characteristic of the entire class Cephalopoda.For most cephalopods, the ink sac is an indispensable adaptation because it allows them to confuse and hide from predators. Without the ink sac, most cephalopods would be much more vulnerable to sharks, whales, and large fish that try to eat them. But, there are few large predators in the depths of the ocean. Part of this is due to the fact that there is very little prey at extreme depths. So, without many sharks, whales, or large fish, the dumbo octopus would rarely (if ever) be required to use an ink sac to escape from predators. Since the ink sac costs energy to grow, maintain, and fill with ink, it would be a complete waste for the dumbo octopus to keep its ink sac. Some time ago, an octopus mutated to not have an ink sac and was, therefore, able to produce more offspring than its relatives with ink sacs. This adaptation was very good, which is likely why all dumbo octopuses are without ink sacs!

The pufferfish carries a toxin 1200 times more poisonous than Cyanide; it is enough to kill 30 people!

Certain species of fish like sharks and rays need to always keep swimming as they do not possess an air bladder that could keep them afloat

The loudest sound ever recorded was made by an iceberg. In 1997, the sound was recorded and named, "The Bloop." It was said to be heard from more than 3,000 miles away.

Translated from Arabic as the "fish that makes dreams", the Salema Porgy has the ability to invoke vivid, LSD-like hallucinations. Ancient Romans knew this, and actually used the fish as a recreational drug.

Some surfaces in the ocean feature sights that don't seem to make any logical sense—rivers and lakes, some of them miles long, can stretch across the ground even though they're submerged. Water from under the sea floor seeps up and dissolves salt layers, forming depressions. Because the water in the depression is denser than the water all around it, it settles into the depression and forms a distinct pool

When Magellan crossed the Atlantic beginning in 1519, he eventually found his way to another body of water—what he dubbed the Pacific, or peaceful, ocean due to the calm surface. He didn't know it at the time, but the Pacific would eventually be recognized as the largest ocean on the planet at 59 million square miles.

You can find the Yeti Crab near thermal vents in some of the coldest parts of the ocean. There, they live in a precarious position: move too close to the vents and they will instantly fry; move too far and they can die of hypothermia. Their "fur" is actually blonde setae, bristles that enable them to harvest their main source of food: bacteria. They dance around, waving their claws through the water to get a constant flow of oxygen and grow the bacteria they subsist on.

The global ocean conveyor belt, responsible for the constant movement of water around our oceans, moves much slower than wind or tidal driven currents. It is estimated to take a parcel of water up to 1000 years to complete a full cycle around it! It is also constantly moving over 100x more water than the Amazon River.

The eviota sigillata, or more commonly known as seven-figure pygmy goby and adorned dwarfgoby lives its entire life on average 59 days. Three weeks as larvae, two weeks to mature, and a little over three weeks to reproduce. Meaning that current generation has died today or are going to die soon and the next generation will begin.

Point Nemo' in the Pacific is the furthest point in the ocean from land, located over 1,000 miles from any landmass. Quite often the closest humans to this point are the astronauts on the International Space Station as they pass overhead.

The current world record for the deepest scuba dive is 332.5m, set by Ahmed Gabr in the Red Sea in 2014. It took him just 12 minutes to reach that depth, but it took over 15 hours for him to safely ascend to the surface!

The sand in the Sahara Desert is mostly made up of the skeletons of diatoms, a type of phytoplankton that live inside silica housing, who used to live in an ocean above Northern Africa millions of years ago.

The chemical composition and structure of some corals is so similar to our own bones, that they can actually be used in bone grafts. Some alterations have to be made to the coral before insertion, but it is actually beneficial for the patients who require less surgery.

Some starfish suffer from an extremely rare birth defect and are actually square in shape! It can only happen to sea stars with five points and the exact nature of the mutation is still unknown.

The blanket octopus (aka the rainbow octopus) have one the most extreme cases of sexual dimorphism (where different sexes are sized or shaped differently) in the animal kingdom. Whereas females grow to six feet in length, males only grow to be an inch long!

Sea turtles cannot process all of the salt from the seawater they drink in their kidneys. Therefore they secrete excess salt through a gland below their eyes, often giving the impression they are crying when on land

Marine iguanas have trident-shaped teeth that are specially designed for scraping algae off rocks. It gives them the appearance of little hands that wave at you from their gaping smiles.

Boxer crabs use anemones as ‘boxing gloves' to fight off predators. In this form of symbiosis the anemones get free travel and food in return for being used as a stinging weapon to protect its crustacean host

Some species of deep-sea anglerfish engage in a disturbing and bizarre behaviour known as sexual parasitism, where the dwarf males bite into and then fuse bodies with larger females, before spending the rest of their lives stuck together.

Frilled sharks have the longest gestation period of any vertebrate, capable of pregnancies as long as three and a half years (that's 42 months!) and if that wasn't bad enough the litter size can be as big as 15 offspring.

You'll soon see a fifth ocean on your maps, now officially recognizing the Southern Ocean, the waters swirling around Antarctica, marking the first time National Geographic has made such a change since it started drawing up maps over a century ago. On World Ocean's Day earlier this week, National Geographic announced the distinction, which many scientists and researchers have unofficially acknowledged for decades.

Harlequin shrimps feed on starfish up to 10x their size by flipping them over so they cannot escape. They will then feed on them throughout the next few days whilst they are still alive!

Most of the picturesque white sand on tropical beaches is actually parrotfish poop. These colourful reef fish scrape algae off corals, often eating just as much coral as algae, which they break down and excrete as sand. The average parrotfish will poop out over 100kg of sand a year.

Scientists found this strange creature at the Great Barrier Reef's Lizard Island and named it, aptly, the Christmas tree worm. The spiral "branches" are actually the worm's breathing and feeding apparatuses, while the worm itself lives in a tube. These tree-like crowns are covered in hair-like appendages called radioles. These are used for breathing and catching prey, but they can be withdrawn if the Christmas tree worm feels threatened.

Because of its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which extends 200 miles along its long continental coastlines, Alaskan peninsula and other island territories, over half of the USA is actually in the ocean.

Brown trout and sea trout are the same species but it is unclear why some seem to choose to migrate to sea while others stay at home. Some trout appear to leave for sea but then change their minds, and are known as "slob trout".

Sound travels faster in the ocean , it travels underwater at a speed of 1435m per second, almost five times faster than in air.

Aside from shipwrecks and other archaeological artifacts, you can also find a lost city underwater. Archaeologists discovered the lost city of Thonis/Heracleion off the coast of Egypt in 2000 that was long thought to be merely the stuff of legend.

The largest animal migration by mass on the planet occurs in the ocean every single day and it's not geographical, but vertical. Every night millions of deep-sea creatures travel thousands of metres upwards to feed on plankton that rise to the surface, before retreating back to the depths before morning. It is known as the Diel Vertical Migration.

Moray eels are not aggressive when they open and close their mouth, they are actually just breathing!

Ribbon eels start their life as male black eels, change to male blue when adult and at a last stage they become yellow females

Pygmy seahorses stay on the same sea fan their whole life and might only move around in a plate sizes area

Dolphins can technically see through other animals! The high pitched sound they produce for echolocation only rebounds of hard surface such as bone and cartilage, but passes through soft tissue. This allows them to see (or more accurately, hear) through other animals!

Gulper eels have this unusual adaptation like pelicans that allows them to scoop up water into its mouth to swallow prey whole. They primarily feed on crustaceans, fish and cephalopods, but some scientists believe their wide mouth allows them to go after larger fish if food is hard to find.

The Amazon pink river dolphin is the subject of many South American folklore, not all benevolent. One such legend claims that the dolphins morph into handsome men known as "boto encantado" to seduce and impregnate womenfolk by night. Another claims that if you go swimming alone, the dolphins may whisk you away to a magical underwater city, which has led to the local fear of going near the water between dusk and dawn, or entering water bodies solo. Some also believe them to be the guardians of the Amazon manatees, so those who wish to see a manatee must first reconcile with the pink dolphin. It is considered bad luck to harm the dolphins, and even worse luck to eat them.

The chimaera is a strange fish that has a network of lines over its surface. The lines often look like seams that give the impression that the animal's body has been created by stitching together parts of other creatures. The appearance is reminiscent of the chimera, a creature in ancient greek mythology whose body consisted of parts of different animals joined together

The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in the Java Trench caused a sufficiently massive release of energy to alter the Earth's rotation, shortening the day by 2.68 microseconds. Similarly, the Tōhoku-Oki earthquake shifted the Earth's axis by between 10cm and 25cm, shortening the day by another 1.8 microseconds.

Horseshoe crabs are not crabs at all. They are not even crustaceans. Instead, they have their own separate class named Merostomata. They have hardly changed since the age of the dinosaurs, and their closest-living relatives are spiders.

Pea crabs measure between 7 to 8 mm in width. They're so small that they actually live as parasites on other shellfish, like oysters, clams, and mussels.

To survive, Antarctic fishes have developed proteins that act as antifreeze. These antifreeze proteins are a group of unique macromolecules that help some polar and subpolar marine bony fishes avoid freezing in their icy habitats.

Similar to eels, the hagfish is the only animal with skulls but no spine. Instead, they have separate bone sections in their backs that function like a spine. Hagfish tend to spend a lot of their time dormant to conserve energy, usually moving only to eat every once in a while.

The jellyfish called Turritopsis dohrnii has been dubbed the immortal jellyfish because it can revert to a younger polyp form after reaching its fully-grown state.

Marine iguanas are also known for their very efficient salt glands, where they "sneeze" out salt. Because they feed underwater, they ingest a large amount of saltwater. In order to prevent dehydration, they must expel salt without expelling water, so they have specialized glands that remove salt from their blood.

There are fifty different species of gall crabs, all small in size. To avoid predators, they form depressions in living coral, a small pit or cave that the crab then lives in. The home also provides easy access to food. The crabs feed on mucus that the coral produces and also other algae bits that they can reach from inside their small coral caves.

The Pistol Shrimp can use its claw to create bubbles that can fly out at 60 miles per hour, fast enough to kill or stun their prey. When these bubbles pop they can reach 210 decibels. An actual gunshot is only around 140-175 decibels.

Seashells have long been perceived as tiny little devices that can mimic the static, hissing noise of the water. What they're actually doing is acting as a resonator, or a cavity that allows sound to vibrate. By holding the shell up to your ear, you're hearing the ambient noise around you amplified. All that whooshing air typically sounds a lot like the movement of cascading waves.

Every year, shipping containers get lost in the ocean, and oil spills are unfortunately common. But in 1966, the United States managed to lose a hydrogen bomb at sea and became the center of an intense 80 day search. it was eventually found by francisco simó orts, who had seen where it was dropped.

Scientists say that "fish rain" usually occurs when swirling whirlwinds over relatively shallow water develops into waterspouts and sucks in almost anything in the water including fish, eels and even frogs. The marine life can be carried long distances by buffeting clouds even when the waterspout stops spinning.

The world's most venomous fish is a close relative to the scorpionfishes, known as the stonefish. Through its dorsal fin spines, the stonefish can inject a venom that is capable of killing an adult person in less than an hour

Let's go back to our roots and talk about freshwater fish you can probably catch. In the deep waters of Eastern Europe and Western Asia lives the largest-bodied European freshwater fish, the Wels catfish also known as sheatfish. The Wels catfish can grow up to 3 meters (9ft 11in) and weigh up to 150 kilograms (330lbs). Though the fish is considered a trophy to some anglers it is also an extremely invasive species having a mean risk score of 21.5 out of a possible 54. which means that it can inhabit different habitat types and will consume a wide range of food items within its environment. And with the female Wels catfish laying up to 700,000 eggs at a time and the male strongly guarding the eggs, an invasion can easily happen where these impacts could easily be felt.

In some areas, like the Okinawa islands, damselfish engage in extensive weeding and maintain a monoculture of red algae in their beds. In others, like Mauritius, they maintain a mixed crop bed, weeding out only invasive plants.

The giant grouper, also known as the Atlantic goliath grouper, is one of the largest grouper fish that reside in shallow waters. Being a carnivore they mostly prey on animals, but there have been numerous reports of these massive fish attacking divers in their territory.

Fisherman prefer to fish anchovies on nights with a full moon: with their silvery body they shine in the water under the moonlight.

In its lifetime, a flounder fish undergoes unusual transformation in its structure. When the egg hatches, like most other fish, it has eyes on both sides of its head. After a few days, it begins to lean to one side, and the eye on the opposite side migrates to the side to which it leans. In this way, the side that has both eyes becomes the top of the fish, and the eyeless side starts fading and becomes the bottom.

When sea lions grow older, they become prone to pneumonia, epilepsy, and cancer.

French angelfish are very rarely—if ever—alone. They form close, monogamous pairs from a young age and then do everything with their mate for the rest of their lives. They live, travel and hunt in pairs and will even defend their ocean territory against neighboring pairs of fish.

As the largest animal on earth, the full-grown blue whale is so heavy, just its tongue can weigh more than an entire elephant- that means that it can be heavier than 7,000 kilograms (15,432 lbs)!

Dolphins find natural ways to get high. They use pufferfish to get this effect, and sometimes even do it in groups.

The digestive system of sea cucumbers cleans the ocean, a sea cucumbers' diet consists of anything that sticks to sand at the bottom of the ocean. After they have gotten food out, they poop the sand out clean and tidy.

Wild axolotls are rarely white, while you might see plenty of white ones in captivity, the animal is normally greenish brown or black. White ones are known as "leucistic" and descend from a mutant male that was shipped to Paris in 1863. They were then specially bred to be white with black eyes (different from albinos, which generally have red eyes).

The modern bowfin species descends from an ancient line of fish that dates back to the Jurassic period some 145 to 200 million years ago. It is sometimes called a "primitive fish" or "living fossil" because it has changed relatively little compared to its ancestors many millions of years ago, but this in fact a modern species.

The blobfish only looks ugly way above water. In its normal habitat, which is 2,000 to 4,000 feet underwater, the pressure there makes it look like any ordinary fish. But as it is brought up to the surface, caught in fishermen's trawling nets, the pressure of the water decreases and the blobfish begins to lose its shape.

There is a science-based plan in place to rebuild red snapper to healthier levels. It is working but will take time. If implemented properly, management agencies hope to restore the population to sustainable levels by 2032.

A flying squid does not actually fly, but uses a jet propulsion mechanism to move forwards above the water surface. It moves with a gliding movement and in about three seconds it can move about 30ft (9 meters)

Although they look near identical, rays and skates are actually different. Stingrays are ovoviviparous, meaning the young are hatched from eggs that are held within the body, whereas skates are oviparous, meaning they lay eggs – these eggs are protected by a hard, rectangular case often called a "mermaid"s purse"!

The largest species in the wolffish family is the wolf eel, a type of wolffish that lives in the North Pacific and is the only member of the Genus Anarrhichthys. These fish can grow up to 2.4 meters (7 feet 10 inches) in length and weigh a whopping 18.4 kilos (41 lbs)!

The Nine-armed Sea Star (Luidia senegalensis), is a millipede with long, slim tapering arms attached to a small circular center. This sea star grows between twelve to sixteen inches in diameter.

Sea cucumbers have an elaborate defensive system. This includes releasing dense and sticky white filaments to entangle any would-be predator or expelling internal organs, which are then regenerated. Some also produce holothurin, a toxin lethal to many fishes.

Despite their flesh-eating reputation, some piranhas are omnivorous, eating more seeds than meat, and some even subsist on plants alone. For example, in the Amazonian rapids of the Trombetas basin in Pará, Brazil, scientists discovered that Tometes camunani lives solely off of riverweeds.

Swordfish actually slash at their prey rather than stab at them with their sword shaped bill. This method allows the predatory fish to injure their prey and also slow it down so it's easier to catch.

Different populations of killer whales make different vocalizations, and different pods within these populations may even have their own dialect. Some researchers can distinguish individual pods, and even matrilines (the line of relationship that can be traced from one mother to her offspring), just by their calls. Meanwhile, pods speak completely different languages. Clans coming together for a chat would be like an English speaker, Russian speaker and Chinese speaker trying to have a conversation.

When you have a really powerful whirlpool, it's called a "maelstrom." Saltstraumen is the strongest maelstrom in the world. It is located off the coast of Norway near the Arctic Circle. The Saltstraumen forms four times a day as the tides carry large amounts of water through a small channel only 490 feet (150 meters) wide. The currents reach speeds of 25 miles per hour (40 kilometers per hour). When ships must pass through the area, they do so during the short windows of time in which the maelstrom is not active. Thousands of tourists visit the city of Bodø to view the maelstrom at high tide, when it is the strongest.

According to the Guinness website, on March 27, 2021, Šobat broke the record for the longest time breath held voluntarily (male) with a staggering time of 24 minutes 37.36 seconds, surpassing the previous record by 34 seconds!

On July 20, 1985 - 36 years ago - Mel Fisher discovered the shipwreck of the Nuestra Senora De Atocha off the Florida Keys. The cargo's value is estimated to be worth around $400 million. The treasure includes 24 tons of silver bullion, ingots, and coins, 125 gold bars and discs and 1,200 pounds silverware. Other items with great historical importance were recovered, like 20 bronze cannons, navigational instruments and Native American artifacts. it wasn't entirely sold as well, some of the artifacts are displayed at Mel Fisher Maritime Museum in Key West, Florida.

You won't find them on many restaurant menus, but jellyfish are edible and are eaten as a delicacy in some places, such as in Japan and Korea. In fact, in Japan jellyfish have been transformed into candy. A sweet and salty caramel made out of sugar, starch syrup, and jellyfish powder has been produced by students in an effort to make use of the jellyfish that often plague the waters there.

When sand dollars are alive, they're actually a purple color. Their fuzzy spines are covered in tiny flexible bristles called cilia which they use to move food along the ocean flood to a central mouth. When they die, their skeletons get bleached by the sun, turning them white, and the small spines fade away.

The cuatro ojos, or four-eyed fish of Brazil has an amazing visual system. It doesn't actually have four eyes, but two, each one split in half by a tissue membrane. This fresh water fish uses two eyes to see underwater and two eyes to see above the surface. This means the cuatro ojos utilizes two different optical axes in the same eye simultaneously.

One of the most striking characteristics of the sheepshead fish is its teeth, which are amazingly similar to those we have in our mouths! Sharp and thick teeth begin to appear when a sheepshead fish is just 4.5 mm long, and as soon as the fish becomes about 15 mm long, all incisors appear. At the same time, its rear teeth develop into adult molars. There are two rows of molars on the lower jaw and three rows on the upper jaw. This heavy dentition allows sheepshead fish to crush and grind the shelled creatures that these fish prefer to feed on. (no picture because I don't want to keep looking at the thing)

Many sturgeon leap completely out of the water, usually making a loud splash which can be heard half a mile away on the surface and probably further under water. It is not known why they do this, but suggested functions include group communication to maintain group cohesion, catching airborne prey, courtship display, or to help shed eggs during spawning.

Worms can survive underwater for several weeks as their skin can absorb oxygen from the water. However, they are unable to swim and will eventually drown if they fail to exit the water.

Saturday, Aug. 7, 2021, Louis Martinez, 19, of Ortonville , set a new state record for the largest Chinook salmon ever caught in Michigan at 47.86 pounds and 47½ inches. The previous record — a Chinook salmon of just over 46 pounds caught on the Grand River in Kent County — had stood for 43 years.The 19-year-old Martinez, on his first fishing expedition for salmon, battled to pull the record-setting fish in for some 30 minutes off the lake's Big Sable Point.

The so-called "teeth" on the sawfish's snout are not actually teeth. They are modified scales. A sawfish's real teeth are located inside its mouth, which is on the fish's underside.

Any sea snake species have more venom than the average cobra or rattlesnake. However, bites are extremely rare. Sea snakes are surprisingly docile and usually only bite when threatened or compromised. Fishermen sustain most of the world's recorded sea snake bites. These mostly occur when they need to remove sea snakes from their nets or accidentally step on them in the water.

Great barracudas are naturally inquisitive. Because they hunt mainly by sight, barracudas sometimes attempt to steal fish from spear fishers or approach divers, mistaking the glint of a diving knife as a shiny fish. Despite this behavior, barracudas rarely attack humans unprovoked.

Hydrothermal vents are the result of seawater percolating down through fissures in the ocean crust in the vicinity of spreading centers or subduction zones (places on Earth where two tectonic plates move away or towards one another). The cold seawater is heated by hot magma and reemerges to form the vents. Seawater in hydrothermal vents may reach temperatures of over 700° Fahrenheit. Hot seawater in hydrothermal vents does not boil because of the extreme pressure at the depths where the vents are formed.

The basking shark's common name derives from its habit of feeding at the surface, appearing to be basking in the warmer water there. It has anatomical adaptations for filter feeding, such as a greatly enlarged mouth and highly developed gill rakers. They weigh between 6,600 and 13,000 pounds. Although it has hundreds of small teeth, the basking shark does not use them when feeding; instead, it usually swims with its mouth open and catches whatever plankton is filtered through. It is one of three plankton-eating sharks along with the whale shark and megamouth shark.

In 2013, a pacu specimen was found by a fisherman in Denmark which led to media reports mistakenly warning that the fish could attack male testicles. The reports were based on a joke that was not meant to be taken seriously. However, just the mere thought of such a creature existing sent chilling fear down the spines of men worldwide, leading the rumor to persist.

The candiru, (Vandellia cirrhosa), is a scaleless, parasitic catfish of the family Trichomycteridae found in the Amazon River region. It is translucent and eellike, and it grows to a length of about 2.5 cm (1 inch). The candiru feeds on blood and is commonly found in the gill cavities of other fishes. It sometimes also attacks humans and has been known to enter the urethras of bathers and swimming animals. Once in the passage, it erects the short spines on its gill covers and may thereby cause inflammation, hemorrhage, and even death to the victim.

The guppy is named after Robert John Lechmere Guppy, a researcher and geologist with, interestingly, no formal scientific training. Guppy was credited with discovering the fish in Trinidad in 1866, according to the National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology. Prior to Guppy, W.C.H. Peters originally discovered the fish in Berlin, where it was overlooked.

The horse conch (Triplofusus giganteus) is considered the largest sea snail in Florida and the United States, growing up to two feet in length. Although they are the official state seashell of Florida, they can be found all along the Atlantic coast, from Florida to North Carolina and in the shallow waters of the Yucatan Peninsula. If their size is any indication of their diet, the horse conch is carnivorous, preying on smaller sea snails and bivalves, smothering prey with their muscular foot. Their shells are bright orange that, interestingly enough, turns white/pale orange with age.

Needlefish are not dangerous because they are aggressive, venomous or poisonous, or pack a mean bite. They're dangerous mostly because of their shape, their needle-like teeth, and their ability to become airborne. The dagger-shaped fish usually swim just a few inches below the water's surface, but they can launch themselves out of the water at speeds of up to 37 miles per hour. They have been known to cause injury and sometimes death in people who happen to be in their way.

Oysters ultimately rely on the carbon present in water as raw materials from which they create their shells. The way these shells are generally made is that these organisms pick up calcium, they package it in proteins and then then direct these proteins to their exterior. Once there, these proteins release calcium in the presence of carbonate ions, and then slowly secrete these building blocks, gradually forming a shell that is made up of 90%+ calcium carbonate, some organic material, and trace amounts of other elements such as iron and manganese.

The mola's odd shape disguises its true claim to fame: it's the heaviest bony fish in the world. Yes, yes, I know that whale sharks are really big, and they aren't whales, they're fish. But they're not bony fish — the skeletons of sharks and rays are made from cartilage. So when you look at all the other non-elasmobranch fishes out there, molas take the prize for size.

Hellbenders or (snot otters) hunt like eels, lurking under heavy rocks and lunging at crayfish, worms, and small fish. And their gullet is enormous — they can swallow fish almost as long as themselves.

Clashing colonies of sea anemones fight as organized armies with distinct castes of warriors, scouts, reproductives and other types, according to a new study. The sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima lives in large colonies of genetically identical clones on boulders around the tide line. Where two colonies meet they form a distinct boundary zone. Anemones that contact an animal from another colony will fight, hitting each other with special tentacles that leave patches of stinging cells stuck to their opponent.

Batfish are not good swimmers; they use their highly adapted pectoral, pelvic and anal fins to "walk" on the ocean floor. When the batfish reaches maturity, its dorsal fin becomes a single spine-like projection (thought to function primarily as a lure for prey).

The giant Amazon leech (Haementeria ghilianii) can grow up to 18 inches and live up to 20 years. And yes, this one's a blood-feeder. Like all hematophagous species, H. ghilianii sticks its proboscis (which can be up to 6 inches long) into a host, drinks its fill, and falls off. Scientists thought the species was extinct until a zoologist found two specimens in the 1970s, one of whom he named Grandma Moses.

A shark's rare "virgin birth" in an Italian aquarium may be the first of its kind, scientists say. The female baby smoothhound shark (Mustelus mustelus) — known as Ispera, or "hope" in Maltese — was recently born at the Cala Gonone Aquarium in Sardinia to a mother that has spent the past decade sharing a tank with one other female and no males, this rare phenomenon, known as parthenogenesis, is the result of females' ability to self-fertilize their own eggs in extreme scenarios. Parthenogenesis has been observed in more than 80 vertebrate species — including sharks, fish and reptiles — but this may be the first documented occurrence in a smoothhound shark.

A team led by Egyptian scientists have dug up a 43 million-year-old fossil in the Sahara Desert in Egypt of a now-extinct amphibious four-legged whale. The authors of the study say that this creature had "unique features of the skull" and that its "mandible suggest a capacity for more efficient oral mechanical processing ." The new whale is called Phiomicetus anubis, which the scientists named in part after Anubis, the canine-headed Egyptian god associated with mummification and the afterlife. It was likely a top predator at the time, similar to what a killer whale is today

Discovered in 1986, Sacabambaspis was a jawless fish that inhabited coastal areas of a shallow sea that once extended across parts of North America. The fish had a broad head-shield and a body that narrowed to end in a small fin. It was a bottom-feeder, and would suck in scraps of food through its ever-open mouth. Sacabambaspis had sense organs that helped it to feel movement in the water, allowing it to judge the distance to its prey and predators. Scientist believe it was a poor swimmer because it lacked paired fins.

In the 2001 Studio Ghibli film "Spirited Away", Akio Ogino is spotted eating a mysterious dish unknown to the viewer often speculated as ba-wan, but in 2020 it was revealed by an Animator in the film that it was actually the stomach of a coelacanth!

Bobbit worms are predatory animals feeding on fish, crabs and other underwater species. They bury themselves in the ocean floor, only exposing their five antennae which can sense movement. Once they sense their prey, the worm attacks it with their razor sharp teeth and pulls it underground. One should never touch a Bobbit worm as their body is composed of numerous bristles which are in fact nerve-damaging. The bristles can deliver a painful sting. If one of these bristles pierces through the skin, one might suffer from permanent nerve damage.

Deutalios resembles a cross between a rat and various fish. He has a long, whip like tail and extended ears which appear to display gills on them, large tusks, and a horn protruding from its head. For a creature that was adapted to living in water, Deutalios appears to have retained its long fur. In some concept art, Deutalios appears to have fins in place of forelimbs, allowing him to swim. The horn on his head also resembles an angler fish's antenna in this artwork, while his eyes are very large and pupil-less, similar to fish eyes. Godzilla was going to fight Deutalios instead of the Super X2 and the rose form of Biollante. After prevailing, Godzilla would have consumed the monster. The monster was possibly dropped due to the graphic nature of this scene, or simply to make room for another battle with Biollante and the Super X2.

Meteotsunamis have characteristics similar to earthquake-generated tsunamis, but they are caused by air-pressure disturbances often associated with fast-moving weather systems, such as squall lines. These disturbances can generate waves in the ocean that travel at the same speed as the overhead weather system. Development of a meteotsunami depends on several factors, such as the intensity, direction, and speed of the air pressure as it travels over a waterbody. Like an earthquake-generated tsunami, a meteotsunami affects the entire water column and may become dangerous when it hits shallow water, which causes it to slow down and increase in height and intensity. Semi-enclosed water bodies like harbors, inlets, and bays can greatly intensify a meteotsunami.

The first bird actually called a penguin was the now-extinct Great Auk found in the North Atlantic. Tragically, early explorers and their contemporaries found Great Auks a little too tasty, and the birds were all killed off. Fossil evidence shows that penguins evolved before the dinosaurs died out.

Centuries ago, manatee sightings by sailors at sea gave rise to the myth of mermaids. But the vision was a mirage-like hallucination brought on by sleep deprivation, dehydration, malnutrition, and maybe a little wishful thinking on the sailor's part! The scientific name for manatees is Sirenia, derived from the Greek Sirens, the dangerous sea nymphs who lured sailors with song, drawing them and their vessels into the rocky shores. It's also another term for mermaids,

In 1987, a local diver exploring off the coast of Japan's southern Ryukyu Islands stumbled across a startling discovery. Twenty-five metres below the surface, he spotted a series of almost perfectly carved steps with straight edges. Known today as the Yonaguni Monument, this massive 50m-long-by-20m-wide behemoth is one of the world's most unusual underwater sites. Nicknamed "Japan's Atlantis", the rectangular, stacked pyramid-like monument is believed to be more than 10,000 years old. Some think it's all that remains of a long-lost Pacific civilisation, possibly built by Japan's prehistoric Jomon people who inhabited these islands as early as 12000 BC. Others say that the site resembles natural formations elsewhere around the world with distinctly defined edges and flat surfaces, such as Northern Ireland's Giant's Causeway, whose thousands of interlocking basalt columns were formed by a volcanic eruption millions of years ago. Marine geologist Masaaki Kimura claims that the formations are man-made stepped monoliths.[1] These claims have been described as pseudoarchaeological.[2] Neither the Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs nor the government of Okinawa Prefecture recognise the features as important cultural artifacts and neither government agency has carried out research or preservation work on the site.

As filter feeders, whale sharks have more than 300 rows of tiny teeth and 20 filter pads. In total, each whale shark has about 3,000 teeth, each less than a quarter of an inch in size. Interestingly, whale shark teeth are not used for feeding — instead, it's their filter pads that enable them to sieve food out of seawater. Whale sharks are capable of sifting food particles as small as 0.04 inches in size through the gill rakers on their filter pads.

As plants and animals near the surface of the ocean die and decay, they fall toward the seafloor, just like leaves and decaying material fall onto a forest floor. In addition to dead animals and plants. The decaying material is referred to as "marine snow" because it looks a little bit like white fluffy bits. The "snowflakes" grow as they fall, some reaching several centimeters in diameter. Some flakes fall for weeks before finally reaching the ocean floor. This continuous rain of marine snow provides food for many deep-sea creatures. Many animals in the dark parts of the ocean filter marine snow from the water or scavenge it from the seabed.

To defend its territory, the sarcastic fringehead opens its enormous mouth to intimidate its foe. They have specially-designed jaws that fan out to the side which makes them appear larger and more intimidating. If the challenger is another sarcastic fringehead, the two will "kiss" by aggressively pressing their open mouths against each other until one finally gives up and swims away.

The arapaima's scaly coat is basically the fish version of a bulletproof vest, which helps protect them from cold-blooded killers like piranhas. The scales comprise two layers: a hard exterior made of minerals, and a flexible interior made of collagen. Unlike human-made bulletproof vests, however, those aren't fused together with a third adhesive layer—the two layers of each arapaima scale actually grow together. This makes it ideal for pressure absorption and range of motion, which researchers hope can help inform advances in materials science.

One study in New York showed that a large population of cormorants was devastating the game fish population, including the smallmouth bass fishery on Lake Ontario. The study found that the cormorants were consuming 1.3 million bass per year. Most of this 1.3 million were smallmouth that were three to five years old. Centuries ago the Chinese figured out that they could use cormorants for fishing. They would capture a cormorant, tie a long string around one of its legs and place a collar around the bird's throat. They would then go out in a boat, hold the string while the bird dove down and swallowed a fish. They would then pull the bird back to the boat and squeeze the neck above the collar and plop the fish into

Scientists have completed the first-ever global, high-resolution map of the world's shallow tropical coral reefs. When combined with an integrated tool that tracks global coral bleaching events in near-real-time, the new resource provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and changes in global coral reef health. While the completion of the map is an achievement in itself, the scientists behind the Allen Coral Atlas say they hope the new resource will spur action to improve coral reef protection.

As wide, flat ground dwellers, Angel Sharks are often mistaken for rays. They have long pectoral fins that extend laterally from the sides of their bodies than resemble the fins of a ray. However unlike rays, they have five gill slits on the sides of their heads, while rays have gill slits under their bodies. Though like rays, Angel Sharks have spiracles, a type of gill that delivers oxygen directly to the brain, located on the top of their heads behind two small eyes. Spiracles are typically found on the sides of the heads of rays. Angel Sharks have rounded snouts with large mouths containing nine rows of razor sharp teeth on the upper jaw and teeth rows on the bottom jaw, In the center of their mouths, there is a space with no teeth. Rays have have mouths on their underneath side of their bodies containing a full row of teeth on both sides of their jaws. On the end of their snouts Angel Sharks have barbels, a sensory organ that acts like whiskers to help them detect their prey. Rays do not have barbels. Finally, the bodies of Angel Sharks are longer and more stout than the bodies of rays.

True to its name, the lumpsucker comes with a literal suction cup on the bottom. Their suction cups evolved from their pelvic fin and allow the fish to anchor itself to its surroundings. It can frequently be found clinging onto eel grass, rocks, or any other objects in its habitat. While the suction cup helps this fish stand out from the crowd, there are other species with similar adaptations–the remora, for example, use suction cups on their heads to attach to sharks, whales, and even ships.

After nine seasons, River Monsters was respectfully retired. This wasn't due to the fact that Wade and his crew were tired of filming and educating but rather was due to a lack of fish to catch. Interestingly enough, Wade had been able to catch every single fish that was on his bucket list throughout the entirety of the show. When they had moved onto folklore and legend, everyone knew that the end was in sight. This made for an incredibly successful run as well as a tremendous educational value on the end of the faithful viewers.

Milky Seas are a rare nocturnal phenomenon in which the ocean's surface emits a steady bright glow. They can cover thousands of square miles and, thanks to the colorful accounts of 19th-century mariners like Capt. Kingman, milky seas are a well-known part of maritime folklore. But because of their remote and elusive nature, they are extremely difficult to study and so remain more a part of that folklore than of science. Unlike bioluminescence that happens close to shore, where small organisms called dinoflagellates flash brilliantly when disturbed, luminous bacteria work in an entirely different way. Once their population gets large enough – about 100 million individual cells per milliliter of water – a sort of internal biological switch is flipped and they all start glowing steadily. Now imagine if a gargantuan number of bacteria, spread across a huge area of open ocean, all started glowing simultaneously. That makes a milky sea. Researchers think the purpose of this glow could be to attract fish that eat them. These bacteria thrive in the guts of fishes, so when their populations get too big for their main food supply, a fish's stomach makes a great second option.

Goldfish are technically a species of carp, known as the Carassius auratus. Most carp grow based on their environment (or how much space they have), as well as the resources that are available to them. Domesticated goldfish, that generally dine on fish flakes and live in a tiny bowl, don't get very large. However, when presented with open waters, as well as more plentiful food sources, they can grow to much greater lengths. With that in mind, goldfish in the wild are also carnivorous, which may contribute to their shocking growth. That's right — without those store-bought fish flakes, your pet goldfish is more than happy to be trolling the bottom of a lake, snacking on the eggs of native species.

As "trap hunters" frogfish often lie in wait for passing fish to come in close before BAM opening it's mouth so fast, up to 1/6000 of a second, creating a vacuum of water and sucking the fish in whole. These fish do not have teeth (more like sandpaper jaws) so they suck the fish in whole. Because they rely on camouflage and do not move much, the best place to find them are on coral bommies (rocks covered in coral), on sponges, or in the sand / coral rubble; which are traditional fish nursery areas.

Due to their unique anatomical shape and lack of scales, many people may not consider seahorses ‘fish' at first, but they are indeed! Possessing swim bladders to remain buoyant in the water and utilizing gills to breathe, these fish also thrive in a strong suit of sturdy armor-like plates. Their tough, bony makeup makes them pretty tough for other fish to digest, illustrating the reason for their lack of many natural predators. Other than crustaceans like crabs who can pluck them up with their sharp pincers, humans are likely one of the more significant threats to the species, historically harvesting the animals faster than they're able to reproduce.

Spider Crabs are not exactly hunters, but these crabs have been known to eat algae, kelp, mollusks, slow-moving invertebrates, and the dead bodies of any creatures that happen to be floating around. In fact, this last option seems to be their favorite, as they seem to prefer to scavenge dead flesh rather than kill things themselves. Ancient mariner legends tell that these crabs used to actually drag sailors overboard and eat them alive in the depths of the ocean. While this is pretty unlikely, it is probably true that these crabs would enjoy the opportunity to pick apart the occasional dead sailor who had washed overboard

The goblin shark has a huge range that includes much of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, but it's most commonly encountered off the coasts of Japan. Japanese fishermen who accidentally caught the sharks couldn't help but notice their protruding snouts, which reminded them of folk stories about a long-nosed, red-faced demon known as the tengu. So they began calling the species tengu-zame. (Zame means "shark" in Japanese.) This was translated into English as "goblin shark," with "elfin shark" being an alternative name the creature occasionally goes by

Pacific Blackdragons feed on bioluminescent creatures. Once inside the stomach these creatures can emit light that can actually pass through the stomach wall. The black tissue lining inside the stomach of the female Pacific Blackdragons prevents this from happening, thus sealing off all possible lights that can possibly warn a potential prey.

Glaucus atlanticus belongs to the order Nudibranchia and is known as the blue dragon, the blue sea slug, the blue angel, or the sea swallow. It has some interesting features and behavior, even compared to other sea slugs. It's a small animal that may reach a little over an inch long. Despite its size, it has some impressive abilities. In addition to the blue color, one of the first things that a viewer would notice would probably be the extensions from the animal's body. Each appendage on the body branches into cerata. The cerata are located on the side of the animal instead of on its back. They contain venom and can sting. The animal doesn't produce its venom. It captures nematocysts from jellyfish and uses them itself. As the floating sea slug is transported by wind and water currents, it feeds on creatures that it encounters and stores their nematocysts.

Herman the Sturgeon is so iconic that he's considered the unofficial mascot of Oregon. Herman lives at the Bonneville Fish Hatchery, who built a special holding facility for Herman and his friends called the Sturgeon Viewing and Interpretive Center – it is one of Oregon's most visited tourist attraction. Herman is famous enough to have his own Facebook profile, a line of merchandise, and he recently appeared in a music video by rapper Aesop Rock. Although Herman has lived for eight decades, he has had several brushes with death. Herman has been kidnapped, was severely injured when another group tried to steal him, and he was stabbed multiple times. Fortunately, the viewing center is much safer than the old pond that Herman used to live in at Bonneville and he now spends his days relaxing and enjoying life.

Bigfin (or long arm) squids are a group of rarely seen cephalopods with a distinctive morphology. They are placed in the genus Magnapinna and family Magnapinnidae. Although the family is known only from larval, paralarval, and juvenile specimens, some authorities believe adult specimens have also been seen. Several videos have been taken of animals nicknamed the "long-arm squid", which appear to have a similar morphology. Since none of the seemingly adult specimens has ever been captured or sampled, it remains uncertain if they are of the same genus or only distant relatives.

Martin Strel, a 66-year-old Slovenian known as the "The Fish Man" and "Big River Man," finished a 66 days swim down the Amazon River in 2007, setting the world record for the longest swim. He became the first man to swim the entire length of the famous river from headwaters in Peru to the Brazilian port city of Belém, for a total of 3,274 miles, swimming for more than 10 hours every day, according to Amazon Swim. A decade earlier, Martin Strel became the first man to swim non-stop from Africa to Europe. It took him 29 hours, 36 minutes, and 57 seconds to complete the task. And he did it without a wetsuit, under supervisions and seven international judges. Seven swimmers had tried the same trip before him, but none of them succeeded.

Finless porpoises are named for and distinguished by the absence of a dorsal fin. Instead of this fin, there is a small ridge on their backs that starts just behind their blowhole and extends as far as the tail flukes. Small circular bumps called tubercles cover the ridge. They have unfused neck vertebrae, which enables unrestricted head movement, and they have a small, curving mouth. About half of them have pink eyes. Their streamlined body is blue-gray, though in northern China and Japan adults are light gray.

The trumpetfish can be recognized by its long stick like body with a tubular snout and a chin barbel. Their coloration is variable ranging from yellow, grey and reddish brown. They have the ability to change color to match their surroundings. The dorsal fin is split into two parts, with a set of small spines mid body and a second dorsal fin set back very far above the anal fin which it matches in size. The body shape and configuration of the tail give it a surprisingly fast acceleration from a standstill. They grow up to 80 cm in length. The mouth is very elastic and is opened to create a vacuum to suck in prey. Males have a specialized pouch used to carry the eggs after mating.

Giant otters are the largest of any otter in the world growing up to 1.8m. They are double the size of world's smallest otter, the Asian short-clawed otter. Their most common prey is fish but they have been known to take some of the more feared Amazonian animals such as caiman, anacondas and piranhas!

I got you Electric eels have three sets of internal organs that produce electricity. The organs are made up of special cells called "electrocytes." Electric eels can create both low and high voltage charges with their electrocytes. Electric eels generate their electric shocks much like a battery. Like the stacked plates of a battery, the stacked electric cells can generate an electrical shock of 500 volts and 1 ampere. the brain sends a signal through the nervous system to the electrocytes. This opens the ion channels, allowing sodium to flow through, reversing the polarity momentarily. By causing a sudden difference in electric potential, it generates an electric current in a manner similar to a battery, in which stacked plates each produce an electric potential difference.

When salmon return to their natal streams to spawn, they stop eating and put all their energy into reaching their spawning grounds to reproduce," the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service posted on Tuesday. "As a result, their bodies begin to shut down, turning them into spooky "zombiefish." This Jekyll and Hyde transformation involves their silver flesh blushing to red, loss of body fat, contraction of their stomach and the deterioration of their internal organs, according to a 2018 government report. Male Pacific salmon even "grow fearsome teeth and hooked upper jaws that they use against each other," the report says.

The walrus has a streamlined body that makes it easy to swim and conserve heat. Because walruses have a small surface-to-volume ratio, along with few protruding body parts, they lose little heat in the cold Arctic weather. Meanwhile, walrus forelimbs and hindlimbs are sleek and webbed, like oars. This means walruses can swim up to 35 kph (22 mph) if startled. On land, the walrus uses its hind limbs to get around, but it cannot use them to stand up. Instead, the walrus uses its limbs to thrust its body forward in small lunges while hardly getting off the ground. And walrus blubber, which can be up to 15 cm (6 inches) thick, acts as a cushion when bouncing around the ice and other hard surfaces.

Pearl perch are pretty, silvery coloured fish with large eyes and several brown longitudinal scale rows that are particularly prominent in juveniles. They are so named because they have a very prominent grey/blue coloured bone (the supraclavical bone) that extends out on each side of the upper rear of the operculum. These bones have a thin layer of skin covering them, which when removed reveals the "pearl" in the form of the bone beneath, which is a brilliant pearly white. In contrast, they also have a faint "false eye" spot at the base of the rear of the dorsal fin, while inside the large mouth is often completely black. Another interesting feature is at night some anglers have reported the inside of the mouth to appear slightly luminescent. This might be due to them feeding on salps or other bioluminescent prey at those times. Most of the time pearlies are voracious predators of smaller fish and invertebrates such as squid.

The Gulf states (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and West Florida) produce 244 million pounds of shrimp per year. Shrimp production is extremely important to local economies in the Gulf South region – providing thousands of jobs and it is a large source of revenue. The average American consumes 4.0 lbs. of shrimp annually. Comparatively, this is out of 15.5 pounds of seafood people in the United States eat each year. Shrimp consumption is followed by salmon (2.3 pounds) and canned tuna (2.3 pounds).

The evolution of the gar as a group dates back more than 100 million years in the fossil record. Modern gars still retain many "ancient" characteristics, including the ability to breathe in both air and water. The name "gar" is based on an Anglo-Saxon term that means spike or lance. Unfortunately, this species has earned an unfavorable reputation in its native habitat as a trash fish. On the mistaken belief that it damages nets and eats game fish, people hunted this species mercilessly in the 20th century. Once this misconception was finally corrected, the number of alligator gar rebounded back toward previous levels

Ladyfish, also called Ten-pounder, (Elops saurus), primarily tropical coastal marine fish of the family Elopidae (order Elopiformes), related to the tarpon and bonefish. The ladyfish is slender and pikelike in form and covered with fine silver scales; there are grooves into which the dorsal and anal fins can be depressed. A predatory fish, the ladyfish has small, sharp teeth and a bony throat plate between its mandibles. It ranges in length up to 90 cm (35 inches) and may weigh up to 13.6 kg (30 pounds). The young are transparent and eellike. You can find ladyfish towards the west of the North Atlantic Ocean, right from Cape Cod, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and towards southern Brazil. They are also found in the waters near Bermuda and south of North Carolina. In a few instances, ladyfish have been spotted in both the Indian and western Pacific oceans too.

Atlantic bonito live in large schools numbering in the thousands. These large schools feed on the water's surface, pursuing their prey and sometimes leaping over the water's surface in the process. This attracts the interest of seabirds searching for food, making it easier for anglers to spot this species. In addition, tuna anglers sometimes catch Atlantic bonito when trolling for the larger games with pound nets.

The Royal Gramma is a type of saltwater fish that is found around the reefs of the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. Royal Grammas are shoaling fish, who are known to live in a group of many individuals. They do, however, require a lot of space. These fish can behave quite aggressively to each other and even break out in territorial battles, but they are extremely peaceful with other species of fish.

Wahoo have silvery colored scales with a dark, blue-green colored back. Its sides, or flanks, have light blue stripes or barring. People often mistake this species for a barracuda for this reason. Adults typically reach about five or six feet long, but exceptionally large individuals can surpass eight feet in length. People in Hawaii call this species of fish "ono." The word roughly translates to "good to eat." and Ironically enough, the common name of this species also came from the Hawaiian Islands. When Europeans first encountered the islands of Hawaii, they often misspelled Oahu as "Wahoo." This misunderstanding led to the European term for this species.

Crawdads are a close relative of the lobster. In fact, crawdad are more closely related to the Maine lobster than other types of lobster in the oceans. They are so close in taste that there was a recent incident in which a New York restaurant was using crawdads in place of lobster in their lobster salad – and no one noticed. There are more than 500 species of crawdad found throughout the world, and more than 350 of those live in the United States. Of these, only two species are actually harvested and eaten. Crawdad live on every continent in the world except for Antarctica.

The short-nosed unicornfish is mainly active in daytime, unicorn fish roam in groups feeding on algae. They are closely related to tangs and surgeonfish and can grow to around 51-61 cm (20-24 in). The horn-like appendage between their eyes begins growing when a young fish reaches about 13 cm (5 in) in length, and tends to be a little bigger on males. They are generally not aggressive to each other, but when they do fight they use sharp scalpels by their tails as weapons, not their horns. Their skin is smooth and less susceptible to skin diseases compared to tangs.

Four years ago a Japanese penguin in Tobu Zoo fell in love with an anime cutout. That penguin's name was Grape-kun and was previously suffering from depression and barely eating after his wife left him for a younger penguin while he was ill and quarantined. In 2017 Grape-kun started to court with hululu, a cutout put into the enclosure as part of collaboration promotion for an anime. This garnered alot of attention in Japan as Grape-kun's overall mood increased and he started to eat again without a handlers help. Sadly, Grape-kun passed away on October 12th, 2017 but he didn't die alone, Hululu was by his side until the end and reportedly died peacefully. In honor of the best year Grape-kun had lived in a long time, a new cutout of hululu and him now sit in the enclosure.

Soft-shell crabs are what we get after stone crabs go through their molting stage and shed their hard shells. The process typically takes two to three hours. It's extremely difficult to determine how old a stone crab is. So, its age is determined by how many times it has molted. It's estimated that, in wild and unharvested populations, males live between 7 and 8 years while females live between 8 and 9 years. Stone crabs are generally right-handed – The right hand is often bigger than the left and stronger. The animal has powerful claws either way. The limb is capable of crushing 19,000 pounds per square inch.

A fish so loud in its spawning that residents in San Francisco Bay were kept awake by what they thought was the humming of an electricity line. The noise appeared once a year and was so loud they planned to sue the electricity company. In fact, it was made by the male toadfish vibrating a muscle on his swimbladder to attract the female with a noise similar to a foghorn. The female swims towards the male and when he grabs her in his jaws they retreat to a suitable crevice to spawn in private. Residents of the bay now celebrate this event with an annual festival.

How long does it take for a body to decompose at sea? What the hell happens to it? It's all about the temperature. Bodies tend to sink in colder water, and the skin absorbs water and peels away from the corpse within a week, slowly being eaten away by marine life. Bodies can stay recognizable for months. In tropical water, it’s a different story. Even a weighted body will normally float to the surface after three or four days, exposing it to sea birds and buffeting from the waves. Putrefaction and scavenging creatures will dismember the corpse in a week or two and the bones will sink to the seabed.

Mantis shrimp (which are actually crabs, not even shrimp) are the Mike Tysons of the ocean world. Equipped with the best visual system and strongest pound for pound punch of ANY creature, they are so troublesome that most aquariums do not hold them, as they would shatter their glass box. Its punch is so strong it creates light and heat as well as a cavitation bubble (a bubble that is made when an impact rips water apart, creating a shockwave). The punch is equivalent to a .22 bullet's velocity upon leaving the barrel. Mantis shrimp have more rods and cones in their eyes and can see more colors than we can. Imagine 13 colors you can't see, plus the ones you already can. That's what a Mantis Shrimp can see.

Think humans have weird childbirth? Imagine if your dad gargled you and all 99 of your baby siblings for 2 weeks. Well that's exactly what the Yellowhead Jawfish father does, keeping more than 100 fertilized eggs carefully placed in his mouth. The fish occasionally opens wide, spits the eggs out, and collects them again, rotating them in the process to ensure even oxygenation. Mouth-brooding lasts between one and two weeks. During that time, he does not eat any food, devoting all of his energy to caring for its spawn.

A rare two-headed turtle with six legs was born two weeks ago and taken to the Cape Wildlife Center. Nicknamed Mary-kate and Ashley, the conjoined duo have managed to stay very active with no underlining medical issues despite having a case that most animals don't survive long with. They've even learned to cooperate together to use their share of three legs to swim up to the surface faster!

The form of barnacle most commonly encountered by land-lubbing humans is the gray, volcano-shaped, stony type that can be found attached to piers, buoys and boat hulls around the world, but this is only one form that barnacles can take. They have a wide range of body plans, but one of the most bizarre is the rhizocephalan barnacle, which is an internal parasite in other crustaceans. They infiltrate and spread within the body of their host and even alter its behavior and appearance. Infected crabs can be detected by the external reproductive structure of the rhizocephalan that grows where the crab's own eggs would be. The crab cleans and cares for this growth as if it were its own.

The spotted mullet/goatfish has an elongated body with a small protrusible mouth with conical teeth and two long barbels on their chin, giving them the look of a goat. The spotted goatfish can lead to ciguatera poisoning. It is a poisoning caused by eating otherwise edible tropical, subtropical, and reef fish, in whose flesh a toxic substance accumulates produced by dinoflagellates. The symptoms of this poisoning develop in three to six hours or in some rare cases even after 30 hours of eating the contaminated fish, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain. Each year up to 50,000 cases of ciguatera poisoning are reported and affect every 3 out of 100 people.

The total number of common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) present in the world cannot be determined or known. However, 12 distinct species of snook are known in total which live in the temperate waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The definite number of common snook present in the world cannot be made, but it is believed that there are millions of them since one common snook female gives birth to more than one million young snooks. But overtime, several coastal areas of the world have observed a decline in the population of the common snook.

Because opah are not a major commercial seafood species and they live in the deep ocean, scientists know very little about their biology and ecology. Scientists assume opah share general characteristics with other Pacific Ocean pelagic fish. Scientists estimate that opah grow quickly. Although they're not sure of opah's exact life span, scientists age opah by their fin rays, assuming fin ray marks are formed annually.

Lumpfish can be bluish grey, olive, brownish, yellowish-green or reddish-brown colored. Color of the body matches with the colors of the environment and provides camouflage. Males are more vividly colored than females. Lumpfish are poor swimmers. Its small, but heavy body is not designed for fast swimming, so it spends most of its life on the bottom of the sea. It occasionally swims toward the shallow water and hides in the floating mass of seaweed.

Drum, also called croaker, are carnivorous, generally bottom-dwelling fishes. Most are marine, found along warm and tropical seashores. A number inhabit temperate or fresh waters. Most are noisemakers and can "vocalize" by moving strong muscles attached to the air bladder, which acts as a resonating chamber, amplifying the sounds. The scientific name of the drum fish is Sciaenidae, which derives from the Latin name for the sea fish, sciaena. Sciaena is also the name of a specific genus within Sciaenidae. The entire family belongs to the order of ray-finned fish called Perciformes. Featuring the familiar perch, sunfish, groupers, and snappers, it is the largest order of vertebrates in the world

The research on whether or not stingrays like being touched is controversial at best. For example, the AZA-certified Shedd Aquarium in Chicago published findings in 2017 suggesting that the animals don't suffer from their interactions with humans, and might even enjoy it.5 Just a year later, however, 34 of the aquarium's 42 cownose stingrays featured in the touch exhibit mysteriously died.

The gurnard's giant pectoral fins look dangerous ... and that's the point! When threatened, these incredible fish fan them out to scare off predators. The fins also come in handy for "walking" along the ocean floor or poking around in the sand for food. The name "gurnard" comes from the French word for "grunt", which is apt as the fish are known to emit growling sounds through their swim bladder. However, flying gurnards don't actually fly – although some sources claim they can glide above the surface for brief stints using their large pectorals.

Though the burbot lake fish is not the prettiest in the Minnesota waters, the eelpout taste is significantly good and buttery, especially a fry or a baby ice eelpout. Earning itself the nickname, 'poor man's lobster,' the eelpout contains a distinctive style and denser meat than typical fish. Instead of flaky fillets, eelpout meat is commonly cubed and said to be very similar to lobster and is very good to eat.

Incredibly walking the line between variety and ocean relatability today, In the wake of the skyrocketing popularity of Squid Games and her instant recognition as its breakout star, HoYeon has been named the newest global brand ambassador for Louis Vuitton and she now has the highest following on Instagram of any Korean actress going from 400k followers in September of 2021, to 22.7 million as of October.

False clownfish live in the coral reefs off the coasts of Australia and Southeast Asia as far north as southern Japan. They are found mainly around certain kinds of anemones, a creature that anchors itself to the sea floor and uses its tentacles to attract food. The anemone's tentacles have stinging cells called nematocysts that release a toxin when prey or predator touches it. Clownfish, however, develop immunity to the toxin by very carefully touching the tentacles with different parts of their bodies, according to National Geographic. A layer of mucus builds up, protecting the clownfish from the toxin. The pair forms a symbiotic relationship. The anemone provides protection and leftovers for the clownfish, while the clownfish brings food to the anemone and preens its host, removing parasites.

Sea snakes evolved in the Coral Triangle region of Southeast Asia 6 to 8 million years ago, with the majority of species appearing between 1 and 3 million years ago. By the time any sea snakes spread across the Pacific to the New World, the Isthmus of Panama had already closed, blocking their access to the Caribbean. In the Eastern Hemisphere, forbiddingly cold, dry conditions at the tip of South Africa where the Indian and Atlantic Oceans meet prevent the snakes from surviving long if they drift west of the Cape of Good Hope. The snakes die in water colder than 65 degrees, and they depend on the freshwater of rivers, streams, estuaries and rainfall for drinking water.

Although the earth's warming temperatures mean that the Northwest Passage is now free (albeit not easy) to sail through, this was not always the case. The search for the elusive passage claimed the lives of many ambitious sailors in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; keen to find an alternate trade route to Asia, their ships would become lodged in Arctic ice, sealing their fate in the Great White North. The Octavius was one of many to meet such a fate, but the grim scenes found on board was what made the story of this ghost ship particularly terrifying. The three-masted schooner departed from England in 1761, but was found off the coast of Greenland in 1775. Her captain had, unluckily decided to try and use the then nonexistent Northwest Passage (which superyacht Rosehearty has since cleared) to return home. The five men who boarded the derelict ship in 1775 were confronted with a ghostly sight; the entire 28-man crew was below deck, but frozen to death. The icy figure of the ship's captain was discovered sitting at his desk, writing in his logbook, pen still in hand. The last logbook entry was in 1762 - the ghost ship and her crew had been lost at sea for 13 years before being found.

It is quite interesting to note that icefish do not have any hemoglobin or red blood cells, meaning they have white or clear blood. They are the only vertebrates to lack both of these. Early research suggested that crocodile icefish blood lacks red blood cells and hemoglobin as they had already absorbed enough oxygen from the extremely low-temperature but oxygen-rich waters of their surroundings. It was thought that this adaptation made their blood thinner which helped the blood in their bodies to circulate faster. This also aided in adapting to an extreme environment. However, new developments in science have revealed that the lack of hemoglobin and red blood cells might be accidental, as the absence of the protein hemoglobin along with red blood cells has reduced the oxygen-carrying capability of their blood.

The story goes, Mary Read and Anne Bonny's paths crossed in 1720 when Calico Jack's crew attacked Mary's ship in the West Indies and took some of its passengers as prisoners. When Mary surrendered to the attacking pirates and subsequently joined the crew, Anne couldn't help but notice this bold and handsome new recruit. Though accounts vary, according to Captain Charles Johnson, Anne Bonny was initially drawn to Mary Read by physical attraction. Anne sought Mary out romantically, believing her to be an especially beautiful man. Once Anne's intentions became obvious, though, Mary decided to reveal her true identity. Anne was either disappointed or intrigued by this revelation depending on which accounts you believe. Some historians argue that Anne and Mary were lovers, others that they were just friends. Captain Charles, for one, seems to have believed that the two were lovers. Both Mary and Anne had reputations as the toughest of the tough in the pirate world- they could fight, swear, steal, and even kill with the best of them. They were known as some of the fiercest fighters on Calico Jack's crew, certainly challenging the old pirate saying that having women aboard a ship invites bad luck. Mary was known to pick fights with crewmembers "when she had been insulted," and Anne is rumored to have brutally stabbed a man in the heart for making comments about women on board ships bringing bad luck to sailors. Anne was listed as a "Most Wanted" pirate in a Boston newspaper, an example of both her fierceness and her renown. The two women are often depicted in battle together, dressed in men's clothes and carrying pistols, cutlasses, and knives Near midnight on October 22, Anne and Mary were on deck when they noticed a mysterious sloop gliding up alongside them. They realized it was one of the governor's vessels, The sloop's captain, Jonathan Barnett, ordered the pirates to surrender, but Rackam began firing his swivel gun. Barnett ordered a counterattack, and the barrage of fire disabled Rackam's ship and sent the few men on deck to cowering in the hold. Outnumbered, Rackam signaled surrender and called for quarter.But Anne and Mary refused to surrender. They remained on deck and faced the governor's men alone, firing their pistols and swinging their cutlasses. Mary, the legend goes, was so disgusted she stopped fighting long enough to peer over the entrance of the hold and yell, "If there's a man among ye, ye'll come up and fight like the man ye are to be!" When not a single comrade responded, she fired a shot down into the hold, killing one of them. Anne, Mary and the rest of Rackam's crew were finally overpowered and taken prisoner. Anne and Mary were found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, but their executions were stayed—because, as lady luck would have it, they were both "quick with child."

The Golden Dorado or Salminus brasiliensis is a species of trophy fish that is considered to be one of the hardest fish to catch pound for pound. Also known as the River Tiger, they have the ability to leap out of the air with ease and have unmatched fighting power and stamina. Anglers from all over the world come to places like Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia and Brazil to seek out these tasty fish! The warm waters of the Plate and Amazon systems are the best places to find these freshwater fish. It is also the national fish of Argentina where it is illegal to catch one.

Unlike other turtles, sea turtles cannot retract their flippers and head into their shells. Their streamlined shells and large paddle-shaped flippers make them very agile and graceful swimmers. In the water, their rear flippers are used as rudders, for steering.

The Baltic Sea and the Northern Sea meet but their waters do not mingle is the difference in their density, which is connected with the salinity. This chemical difference is known as a halocline. The North Sea has more saline water as it comes from the Danish Straits while the Baltic Sea has fresh and clean water that comes from the drainage basin. From time to time, the temperature of the bodies of water alters, which causes surface mixing. Still, it happens only in particular regions where the seas are rather shallow, so they remain mostly separate.

You cannot catch fish in your toilet. The level of water is too low and the concentration of sewage is too high. Fish need oxygenated water to survive (it's how they breathe), and toilet water isn't oxygenated enough. Even if it was, the level of sewage would kill any species of fish. Toilet water goes through a reclamation process that filters out all sewage and bacteria before becoming "grey water". Grey water is then often used for irrigation or other non-consumption purposes.

While most Tigerfish species are not known to be dangerous to humans, the Goliath Tigerfish is a scary exception. Citing recorded instances in the Congo River where unsuspecting swimmers have been preyed upon, it is the only African freshwater fish that is actually known to attack humans. Its mouth doesn't have any lips with the teeth set along the edge of its jaw fitting into distinct grooves. It preys on any fish it can overpower including smaller members of its own species and small crocodiles

The alligator snapping turtle has a large head and thick shell with three ridges that feature large, spiked scales. In contrast, the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) has a smoother shell. Snapping turtle have strong, stout heads, powerful jaws, and sharp claws. alligator snapping turtles are opportunistic predators. Their usual diet includes fish, carcasses, mollusks, amphibians, worms, snakes, water birds, crayfish, aquatic mammals, and other turtles. They will also eat aquatic plants. Large alligator snapping turtles have been known to kill and eat American alligators. Like other reptiles, they refuse to eat when the temperature is extremely cold or hot because they cannot digest their meal.

When Theodore Roosevelt journeyed to South America in 1913, he encountered, among other exotic creatures, several different species of piranha. Here's what he had to say about them in his bestseller, Through the Brazilian Wilderness: "They are the most ferocious fish in the world. Even the most formidable fish, the sharks or the barracudas, usually attack things smaller than themselves. But the piranhas habitually attack things much larger than themselves. They will snap a finger off a hand incautiously trailed in the water; they mutilate swimmers—in every river town in Paraguay there are men who have been thus mutilated; they will rend and devour alive any wounded man or beast; for blood in the water excites them to madness. They will tear wounded wild fowl to pieces; and bite off the tails of big fish as they grow exhausted when fighting after being hooked."

The rock has a fish farm he tends to do for relaxing. He works with a team of university biologists to ensure he's giving his fish a thriving ecosystem full of largemouth bass, stripped bass, trout, carp, sunfish etc.

You can't drink sea water, but you can drink sea ice. However, you don't want to drink fresh sea ice, which still has little pockets of brine trapped in between ice crystals. As the ice ages, the brine drains out, and the ice becomes fresh enough that, according to the NSIDC, it can be melted and consumed.

Scientists created the first-ever peanut butter jellyfish by blending all-natural creamy peanut butter with saltwater and adding it to the tanks of moon jellies. Aquarists at the Dallas. Goofy as the experiment was, peanut butter is a potential source of protein for jellies, fish and other aquarium residents. Worry not for the experimental jellies: They scarfed the peanut-butter protein out of their tanks and actually grew about 0.2 inches (4 millimeters) in 8 days. They also took on a brownish hue.

Fish in the lower St. Croix River can contain dangerous levels of industrial chemicals, a Minnesota state agency has found. Toxins related to products like Scotchgard and Teflon have previously been known to pollute groundwater in areas between Lake Elmo and the St. Croix, as well as across the country. Now it has been found in fish in the river at levels considered possibly harmful to human health. The affected zone is the entire 50 miles of river below Taylors Falls to the Mississippi. For some people, scientists say the health benefits of eating fish probably outweigh the risks posed by PFAS. But children under 15 and women who may become pregnant, or are pregnant and nursing, are a higher risk. The chemicals primarily threaten development of fetuses and children, weakening immune systems, interfering with hormone levels, and similar effects.

Researchers at monterey bay aquarium research institute (MBARI) unveil the benthic rover II, an autonomous, deep-sea roaming robot. the benthic rover II traveled to a depth of 4,000 meters (13,100 feet) to explore the muddy floor of the deep sea, and will autonomously collect oceanographic data for more than five years. the intrepid robot, about the size of a small car, is equipped with onboard cameras and other such instruments which capture glimpses of the mysterious communities which occupy the floor of the deep. The benthic rover II will withstand the cold, corrosive, and high-pressure conditions of the deep sea. constructed from corrosion-resistant titanium, plastic, and pressure-resistant syntactic foam, the bot can withstand depths reaching 6,000 meters (about 19,700 feet) deep — for reference, the earth's deepest oceanic trench, mariana's trench, is 11,034 meters (36,201 feet) deep. the robot will uncover the mysterious creatures which occupy the ocean's depths while reporting critical data which will help the team of researchers — led by alana sherman of electrical engineering group and ken smith of MBARI — to understand the poorly quantified deep-ocean carbon cycle. while it's widely understood that increasing carbon dioxide emissions have harmfully impacted the changing climate, the rover will offer more insight into these effects.

A fish called the Pacific lingcod has one of nature's toothiest mouths, with about 555 teeth lining its two sets of jaws. Now, a new study suggests that these fish lose teeth as fast as they grow them — at an astonishing rate of 20 per day. To understand how the Pacific lingcod's mouth looks and functions, first throw out almost everything you know about your own mouth. Instead of incisors, molars and canines, these fish have hundreds of sharp, near-microscopic teeth on their jaws. Their hard palate is also covered in hundreds of tiny dental stalactites. And behind one set of jaws lies another set of accessory jaws, called pharyngeal jaws, that the fish use to chew food much in the same way humans use molars. Because the Pacific lingcod's teeth are so small, figuring out how quickly these fish lose their teeth was not as simple as sweeping them from the aquarium floor. Instead, the researchers placed the lingcod in a tank filled with a dilute red dye, which stained the fish's teeth red. Later, the researchers moved the fish to a tank filled with a fluorescent green dye, which stained the teeth again. In total, they counted over 10,000 teeth across all 20 captive fish. They also found that the fish lose an average of roughly 20 teeth per day.

The pompano supports an important commercial and recreational fishery. Florida pompano are commercially fished in all states on the East Coast from Virginia to Texas, with Florida producing over 90% of the annual harvest. Harvesting occurs mostly along Florida's western coast, with some harvesting on the eastern coast and in the Banana and Indian Rivers. Between 1994 and 2006, it commanded dockside prices of more than $3 per pound of whole fish weight. Chefs like it because the fillets are of even thickness, which aids in cooking. A popular dish created in New Orleans, called "pompano en papillote," is wrapped in parchment paper with a white sauce of wine, shrimp, and crabmeat, and then steamed.

Fire coral is a marine animal but not like other true corals. It is spotted around the Caribbean, as well as the main oceans around the world. Many people have confused these corals with seaweeds. These fire corals are considered to be slightly more harmful than other coral reef cuts. This is mainly because fire coral has an ability that leaves a stinging effect on the object that comes in contact with it. The sting is supposed to be warm and has symptoms with a severe burning effect on the surface. This is also one of the reasons they are called 'Fire'.

The points of the so-called Bermuda Triangle are Miami, Puerto Rico, and Bermuda—but don't worry if you've booked a trip to any of those destinations. Despite the area being known for the unexplained disappearances of ships and planes, there really isn't any evidence that it's more dangerous than anywhere else in the world, or that there's any supernatural phenomenon at work. But, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) does admit there could be scientific reasons for the disappearances, such as the likelihood of hurricanes, rapid changes in weather due to the Gulf Stream, and the numerous islands in the Caribbean that make for tricky navigation. NOAA also acknowledges that the area could possibly mess with navigational tools, making them point true north as opposed to magnetic north; or that "oceanic flatulence," a burst of methane gas from the sea, could somehow have affected the vessels and planes.

Mosquitofish or Gambusia affinis is a tiny silver-colored fish. It is a freshwater species belonging to family Poeciliidae and order Cyprinodontiformes. The name is derived from a Cuban Spanish term gambusino which means useless. Even though its name means useless, this tiny fish has proved its utility. These tiny fish feed on larvae of insects and their primary source of food is mosquito larva. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in ponds which grow into larvae and become a great source of diet for mosquitofish. They also feed on algae, thus helping in maintaining a balance in the pond's ecosystem. In case, natural resource of food is not available, a good quality flaked fish food can be used to feed them.

The plumed basilisk's Genus: Basiliscus was taken from a legendary reptilian creature of European mythology which could turn a man to stone by its gaze: the Basilisk. Furthermore, their name was also derived from the Greek word "basiliskos," meaning "little king," in reference to the animal's crownlike head adornment. Plumed basilisks, along with other basilisks, are able to use their feet and tail to run short distances on top of the water. Their back toes are lined with small, downward facing scales. These scales increase the surface area of the toe against the water, and it is because of these toe scales that they are able to "walk" on water. Among locals, this unique ability of the plumed basilisk has earned the lizard the nickname the "Jesus Christ Lizard".

The dead are believed to persist in the waters of the Black Sea. Remains of ships and humans and other decomposable materials like ropes, wood etc. can still be found at the seabed, hundreds of years after their entry into the waters of the Black Sea. The scientific explanation for it is that due to the anoxic nature of the lower water layers of this sea, the process of decomposition is negligibly slow, hence, the persistence of remains of the dead inside the sea's water.

Shrimps are cannibals. They eat anything and everything they find in the pond. If you find a group of shrimps crowded around a dead fellow mate, chances are they might actually be relishing it! There is no need to be alarmed since feeding on a dead shrimp improves its own exoskeleton. One or two dead shrimps here and there is fine. One should be worried if there is a group shrimps lying around dead.

Skeleton shrimp look like, and are sometimes called, "praying mantises of the sea." They have two pairs of legs attached to the front end of their bodies, with three pairs of legs at the back end. The front legs form powerful "claws" for defense, grooming and capturing food. The rear legs have strong claws that grasp and hold on to algae or other surfaces. They use their antennae for filter feeding and swimming. To move, they grasp first with those front legs and then with their back legs, in inchworm fashion. They swim by rapidly bending and straightening their bodies.

Shrimp do not have the same immune system as vertebrates. This characteristic has a significant impact on shrimp farm management: it prevents these crustaceans from becoming immune to disease through vaccination. Since shrimp lack an adaptive immune system, innate immunity is their essential form of defense. This immunity acts as first-line protection from the disease and mortality threats. As with all livestock species, the best way to reduce these impacts on farmed shrimp is by erecting a number of barriers so as to prevent the development of pathogens. In this respect, physical and sanitary barriers are the most effective means of prevention. (I googled sick shrimp art and found this so I'm using it)

Tadpole shrimp, any member of a small group of crustaceans composed of the genera Triops and Lepidurus. The approximately 10 known species are strictly freshwater forms, inhabiting lakes, ponds, and temporary pools, chiefly in Europe and North America. The common name tadpole shrimp derives from the animal's distinctive body shape—a large, oval shell-like carapace and a slender, flexible abdomen with a long, forked tail. Extending up to 100 mm(4 inches) in length, the body may have as many as 40 segments, some with several pairs of leaflike appendages. Certain species have up to 70 pairs of limbs. Tadpole shrimp typically dwell at the bottom of bodies of water, feeding on organic debris or preying on small aquatic animals and larvae. Their eggs, which are highly resistant to desiccation may survive in the soil for many years after temporary pools have dried up; they hatch when the pools have refilled with water.

The fairy shrimp is one of many species specialized for a short life cycle in seasonal ponds called vernal pools. Each winter, during the rainy season, dry depressions fill up with water and the fairy shrimp hatch. They grow to maturity over several weeks, eating algae and plankton. Before the vernal pool dries up again, the females produce hardy resting eggs, called cysts, which survive the dry season and hatch when the rains come again. This strategy allows them to avoid predators that can't survive in such a temporary habitat. It takes 41 days for a shrimp to reach maturity, after which point it must reproduce before dying at the end of the rainy season. Typically the young hatch in December and live until May, unless temperatures become too warm.

Two shrimp nutritional standouts are selenium and astaxanthin. Three ounces of shrimp provides 48% of recommended selenium. Selenium is an antioxidant that helps neutralize damaging free radicals. This, in turn, reduces risk for cancer and heart disease. Selenium is an essential nutrient for production of glutathione peroxidase, which is another powerful inflammation-reducing antioxidant. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that gives fish and shrimp a pink color. Also an antioxidant, it contributes to heart health and reduced risk of cancer. (picture unrelated I just think it's cool)

The rock shrimp (Sicyonia brevirostris) is a deep-water cousin of pink, brown, and white shrimps. The similarity among these shrimp stops there, because rock shrimp have a tough, hard exoskeleton or shell that prevented widespread marketing until a machine was invented to split and devein the headed shrimp. Now, rock shrimp are widely available as fresh or frozen,whole, headless, shell-on, peeled, round, split, or deveined products. rock shrimp live, spawn, and are harvested in 120 feet to 240 feet of water. Harvesting is accomplished with reinforced trawl nets throughout the year. Properly handled rock shrimp will have transparent or clear white flesh with no discoloration. The odor of fresh rock shrimp will be mild and ocean-like. Rock shrimp are sold by "count" (number of shrimp per pound) and the largest size generally available is 21-25 per pound.

The bluespotted sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriosus) is one of the smallest sunfish in the sunfish family (2-3in or 50-75mm) with a physical description similar to that of banded sunfish and spotted sunfish. The anal fin and the dorsal fin are covered with spines and rays. The anal fin has three spines and 10 rays while the dorsal one consists of 10 spines and 10-13 rays. The body is covered with silver and blue dots. These dots are more prominent in males than females. Juvenile fish sometimes have pale bars on the lateral side of the body, but they are rare.

The black-breasted leaf turtle has a dark, unpatterned undershell with a yellow border. Three raised ridges run from head to tail on the top of the shell, which is flattened with rough edges at the front and back to resemble a leaf, which is why they're called "leaf turtles." The turtles' feet are partially webbed and their large eyes stick out in an unusual way, giving an alert and curious expression. They don't have teeth – instead, their mouths have a hard, sharpened edge that they bite with, similar to a bird's beak. Females' tails are shorter and thinner than males.

The Silver Pearlfish (Encheliophis homei) is a very unusual fish with an out the ordinary lifestyle. During the day they spend their time inside the coelom of sea cucumbers, emerging to feed only at night. Being nocturnal they steer clear of light and will usually swim to the outer peripheries of ones dive lights, additionally because of their transparent nature and habit of swimming low and fast on the substrate they are difficult to pick out and to photograph. Numerically there do not appear to be many of them and they are not often seen. During the intermediate phase after transforming from larvae, they seek protection from the sea cucumbers and enter the coelom of the sea cucumber. During this stage they may be parasitic, but as they grow into adults so analysis of their stomach content shows that they feed on planktonic matter such as small Silver Pearlfish and crustaceans and the relationship with the host is commensal. This hypothesis is backed up by their teeth structure and they have a row of small teeth on the upper jaw and in the lower jaw the teeth are longer and slightly curved backwards which indicates a carnivorous lifestyle. They have been documented as making sounds, however the actual purpose of these sounds is unknown but may be used for territorial or mating purposes.

Evolutionary biologists have been arguing over seals' origins for more than a century. While relatively sure that pinnipeds evolved from land-dwelling carnivores, scientists are divided on the precise steps that occurred between terrestrial ancestors and modern marine mammals. Along with the three subclades of pinniped, the suborder Caniformia contains Ursidae (bears), Mustelidae (badgers, otters, weasels, and relatives), and Mephitidae (skunks and stink badgers). In 2007, a nearly complete skeleton of a new semi-aquatic carnivore from an early Miocene lake deposit in Nunavut, Canada, was discovered and became known as an evolutionary link between land mammals and seals.

The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, otherwise known as the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," is considered the world's largest accumulation of ocean plastic. It's so massive, in fact, that researchers found it has been colonized by species — hundreds of miles away from their natural home. Researchers found that species usually confined to coastal areas — including crabs, mussels and barnacles — have latched onto, and unexpectedly survived on, massive patches of ocean plastic. Coastal species such as these were once thought incapable of surviving on the high seas for long periods of time. Only oceanic neuston, organisms that float or swim just below the ocean surface, have historically been found near these patches, as they thrive in open ocean. This new community, researchers said, "presents a paradigm shift" in the understanding of marine biogeography. "The open ocean has long been considered a physical and biological barrier for dispersal of most coastal marine species, creating geographic boundaries and limiting distributions," researchers said. "This situation no longer appears to be the case, as suitable habitat now exists in the open ocean and coastal organisms can both survive at sea for years and reproduce, leading to self-sustaining coastal communities on the high seas."

Also known as sculpin, and ‘mother-in-law fish' because of its loud mouth and constant croaking, the Cabezon is a large, smooth and scaleless fish that is the only species under its genus. The cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus) is a unique fish living on the Pacific coast. Generally found near the ocean floor, the cabezon is known for being stubborn because of its temperament and its ability to remain nearly motionless until its next meal. They also have poisonous spines that match their attitude! Cabezon is Spanish for "big headed," which perfectly describes this fish. cabezon tend to settle in tide pools and eventually make their way to the kelp forest to live out their adult lives under rocks and hiding in the shadows. The coloration of cabezon is usually brown with shades of either green (females) or red (males). More than 90% of the green Cabezon fish are female, while more than 90% of the red Cabezon are males.

Orcas (Orcinus orca) are often called killer whales, even though they almost never attack humans. In fact, the killer whale name was originally "whale killer," as ancient sailors saw them hunting in groups to take down large whales, Today, orcas are recognized as among the most widely distributed mammals on the planet, occupying every ocean. They are incredibly social, diverse and ferocious marine predators with a diet ranging from penguins to great white sharks. Orcas are apex predators, at the top of the food chain. No animals hunt orcas (except for humans). Killer whales feed on many different types of prey, including fish, seals, sea birds and squid. They can also take down whales larger than themselves, such as minke whales, and they are the only animal known to predate on great white sharks, according to The Natural History Museum in London. Killer whales have even been reported to kill swimming deer and moose.

The Sauger is a freshwater fish that is bronze to olive in color with dark color blotches and has a white belly. It has an elongated body and has two dorsal fins; the first dorsal is spined while the second fin is soft-rayed. One of the ways to differentiate it from its closely-resembled relative, the walleye, check its tail if it has a white-tipped. If the white-tipped tail is absent, then it is a sauger. The sauger sometimes mates with its close relative, the walleye. The hybrid species is called "saugeye".

Dating back to 400BC, scallops have played a prominent part in man's religious, artistic and architectural development. The shell features in numerous works of art, the most famous example being Botticelli's masterpiece The Birth of Venus. In Greek mythology, Aphrodite (the Greek equivalent to the Roman goddess Venus) was born and arose from the sea foam that resulted from Cronus (the new order of gods) flinging the severed genitals of Uranus (the old order of gods) into the ocean. A giant scallop shell then carried her to the island of Cyprus where her reign began.

Tunas are highly specialized migrating species. They swim continuously to counterbalance their negative buoyancy, travelling hundreds of kilometers / miles. This strategy has a high energy cost, forcing them to move in search of food and has resulted in morphological and physiological adaptations for thermoregulation and high oxygen extraction efficiency. Therefore, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration affect tuna behavior significantly. They also have a well-developed network of blood vessels below the skin that acts as a temperature-regulating device associated with long-term, slow swimming. Because of this vascular system, they are able to maintain the temperature of their bodies above that of the surrounding water, often between 5 and 12 °C (9 and 21.7 °F) above ambient water temperature.

A remote-operated vehicle spotted the elusive giant phantom jellyfish in the midnight zone, an area of the ocean about 3,200 feet below the surface, in one of just nine of the team's encounters with the species since it was discovered in 1899. Footage and photos from the expedition unveil the crimson animal's bulbous body and its four billowing, blanket-like arms (these function as mouths) that have the capability to stretch 33 feet out into the water and uncannily resemble a hat and scarf flying in the wind. Because sightings are so uncommon, researchers suspect that the huge jellyfish eats plankton and small fishes, although they haven't been able to study it enough to know for sure.

In 2010, geneticists at the University of Colorado, Boulder compared DNA samples from eight hammerhead species in an attempt to map out the family's evolutionary history. The molecular evidence suggested that the hammerheads started to diversify around 20 million years ago. The fossil record tells us sharks have existed for at least 420 million years—so if the University of Colorado team is correct, hammerheads are relative newcomers on the world stage. What did the earliest hammerheads look like? According to the researchers, these were probably large-bodied animals. They also argued that today's modestly-sized bonnethead and winghead sharks independently evolved from big ancestors.

Payara Fish (Hydrolycus scomberoides), also known as Vampire Tetra, is a predatory species of dogtooth tetra that can be found swimming in the tropical waters of the Amazon Basin as they actively hunt for their next meal. Payara fish are born with gaps in their upper jaw to accommodate their razor-sharp fangs. These fangs are very sharp and they are designed to kill their prey. These sword-like fangs can reach up to six inches long. The long silver body of a Payara fish is very powerful. They go after schools of fish, latching onto their prey with a sudden strike. Payara fish were first discovered in 1918 by Georges Cuvier, a French naturalist and zoologist. The scientific name Hydrolycus scomberoides originated from the Greek words: "hydro" meaning water, "lykos" meaning wolf, and "scombros" meaning tuna. The Payara Fish are easy to spot amongst the other genus – the side of their tail and pectoral fins feature a dark spot and a large, bony face that sneakily conceals their gills. Payara fish belong to the Dogtooth Characins family.

Oarfish are part of many Japanese folklore stories. Smaller than the giant oarfish, the Regalecus russelii (slender oarfish) is said to be messenger from the Sea God's Palace. When these fishes have washed ashore, they are of no use except for research because people have tried eating them, and they taste like gelatinous goo. Giant oarfish meat has a gelatin-like consistency, which makes it not suitable for eating. In history, when a giant oarfish washed ashore, it was considered as a prediction for an earthquake.

Sea monkeys are actually a type of brine shrimp, which is a tiny animal that lives in saltwater. About 60 years ago, an inventor named Harold von Braunhut created sea monkeys. He was fascinated by brine shrimp because they could undergo cryptobiosis, When conditions are good, female brine shrimp release live babies into the water. But when conditions are bad, such as lack of food or water, the female brine shrimp release eggs that have a covering around them called a cyst. These cysts protect the baby brine shrimp inside. The babies will stay inside the cysts until the conditions improve. They can stay in the cysts for a long, long time and can still hatch later on when there is enough water and food to keep them alive. Because brine shrimp can do this, von Braunhut realized that he could put brine shrimp eggs into packages and sell them in stores. The brine shrimp eggs in the package would be in a state of cryptobiosis in their cysts until someone bought them, put them into water, and began to feed them. He thought kids would be fascinated by the creatures, but brine shrimp wasn't a very attractive name. Because they have long tails like monkeys, he decided to name them sea monkeys.

Leaf slug's have one key plant-like characteristic: They can perform the process of photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants can use sunlight to create energy from carbon dioxide and water. How do they do this? Their primary diet is sea algae. When they consume it, they suck the chloroplasts out of the algae in a process called kleptoplasty. This process then enables them to photosynthesize. This is why leaf slugs glow, In other words, they are bioluminescent.

Like all cephalopods, cuttlefish have three hearts. Two of its three hearts are used to pump blood to the cuttlefish's large gills, and the third is used to circulate oxygenated blood to the rest of its body. The circulatory system of cuttlefish is closed, unlike other mollusks, but consistent with other cephalopods and vertebrates. The blood pumped through the cuttlefish's heart is blue-green in color because, like its cephalopod relatives, it contains a copper-based protein, hemocyanin.

Water lilies reproduce both by way of seeds and by the spreading of their tenacious roots, or rhizomes. Though lily pads spread relatively slowly, they can eventually take over entire shorelines and are considered invasive in some areas. Water lilies and their surface lily pads can blanket areas of water as deep as six feet. A single rhizome can reproduce and grow to cover an area 15 feet in diameter in as little as 15 years. When spread to non-native habitats, water lilies can shade the water and make it too cold for native species of fish and plants. Water lilies may also compete with native plants for nutrients.

How do barnacles stick to the undersides of vessels, to other sea life, to each other, and to pretty much anything they come in contact with? They secrete a fast-curing cement that is among the most powerful natural glues known, with a tensile strength of 5,000 pounds per square inch and an adhesive strength of 22-60 pounds per square inch. The glue is so strong that researchers are trying to figure out how it can be used commercially.

Sometimes a peacock gudgeon is referred to as a peacock goby but they are not true gobies. Unlike the fishes of the goby family, peacock gudgeons do not have fused pectoral fins. The typical fused pectoral fins are the trademark of a true goby. So the name peacock goby stands as incorrect and the fish are called peacock gudgeons that belong to the family of Eleotridae. The peacock gudgeons have a blurry black spot at the start of their tail fins. This is visible in every fish irrespective of the sexual dimorphism in males and females. This looks very similar to the black spot present at the same position in peacocks. For this reason, this fish gets the moniker peacock in its name. Also, they have somewhat bluish scales like a peacocks' blue body, accentuating the semblance between the two.

Over the years there have been numerous theories concerning the leaping of mullet. There seems to be two categories of leaping: predator avoidance and aerial respiration. Leaping to avoid predators usually involves more than one fish jumping simultaneously, retaining an upright posture and entering the water cleanly. The second type of leaping involves a single fish that does a slower, shorter leap, often flipping onto its side or even onto its back. They may also roll at the surface or move with their head above the water. The research of Hoese (1985) suggests that Sea Mullet use this second category of movements to fill the pharyngobranchial organ (an area at the back of the throat) with air. The trapped air is believed to allow the fish to remain active in water of low oxygen concentration for about five minutes. Several interesting lines of evidence support this theory. The number of jumps is correlated with the concentration of oxygen in the water. The less oxygen, the more jumps. Secondly, Sea Mullet feed during the day often in bottom sediments that have low oxygen concentrations. Jumping occurs much more commonly during the day. Sea Mullet rarely jump at night.

The gourami fish is found in a huge spectrum of colors. They have a stretched body with iridescent scales and males and females can be differentiated by color. The well-known dwarf gourami female is a silvery color while the male dwarf gourami is blue or red in color. Other species are blue, pink, green, gold, and many other colors. They have long fins and, in front of their pelvic fins, many species have a long feeler-like ray. One of the best gourami adaptations to take note of is their labyrinth. As they mostly lived in muddy and stagnant water, this acts as a lung and helps them to gulp in oxygen from the surface. The dorsal and anal fins of this fish are pointed and are longer in males. The fins on their abdomen are as long as their body and they regrow if broken.

The barreleye fish is a deep sea fish that is usually under 20 cm long (although some species can be larger). They live in the deep ocean depths where the sunlight can't reach. This type of environment often causes some unique adaptations. the barreleye fish has tubular eyes that protrude from their skull but are enclosed in their transparent dome. These type of eyes are very good at collecting any little bit of light that may be finding its way to the deep ocean depths. The eyes of the barreleye fish generally look up so they are able to detect slight movements in their prey directly above them. For awhile, scientists believed that the eyes could only look up but recent studies have indicated that the barreleye fish is able to direct their unique eyes forward to see what they are eating. These astonishing adaptations just go to show how incredible evolution can be and that there are no limits to an animals survival in this harsh world.

One of the reasons catfish can be found all over the world is because they can adapt to a wide variety of habitats. Catfish can be found in areas where the temperature is 95f (35c) and they can also survive at temperatures just above freezing. Typically when the water temperatures gets below 65f (18) catfish will slow down, conserve energy and may halt feeding, but hey have been known to be active year round even in cold temps.

Pacific beardfish (Polymixia berndti ), a species more commonly caught by deep-ocean trawlers than by anglers. Growing to around 20 inches long, they are one of the largest of the 10 species that comprise the beardfish family, Polymixiidae, which is a group of fishes closely related to alfonsinos and other deepwater red-colored fishes in the family Berycidae. The Pacific beardfish lives on muddy and sandy bottoms in waters up to 1,800 feet deep throughout the Indo-Pacific region, from east Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, north to Japan, and as far south as Australia. The scientific name Polymixia is derived from the Greek words poly (a lot of) and myxos (mucus), suggesting they are slimy little fish. Their common name, "beardfish," is of course due to the presence of the two prominent sensory barbels under the chin, which they use to "taste" for smaller fish and crustaceans as they swim over the sediments.

Christmas wrasses were named for their green and red coloration. They are also called ladder wrasses, 'awela (Hawaiian), and green-barred wrasses. Males and females exhibit sexual dimorphism in color, and may change color, and even sex, during their lives. Males in their terminal color phase are brightly-colored while females are green with black lines. The most brilliantly-colored male Christmas wrasses have reddish-pink background coloration on their body with ladder-like stripes that are bright blue and green in color. In its initial phase, a male has a diagonal dark red line below its eye. The head of the male is brown, orange or shaded with blue, while the head of females is spotted. Younger animals of both sexes are a more drab green and brown color. The Christmas wrasse's ability to change colors and sex has caused confusion over the years over species identification. It also looks similar to another species in a similar habitat - the surge wrasse (Thalassoma purpureum), which is similar in color, although there is a v-shaped mark on their snout which is absent in the Christmas wrasse.

The Newport Beach Christmas Parade is a magical event that happens each year with boats/yachts traveling down a route while decorated in fantastic lights. But how did this event come to be? In 1907, John Scarpa began a tradition by lighting boats decorated in Japanese lanterns and taking visitors around the bay. However, a year later on July 4th this would be expanded and turned into what is credited as the first lighted boat parade. This would eventually be known as the Tournament of lights in the early days with thousands of visitors and historians participating in a contest to see which boat was decorated better. Unfortunately this is the 1900s so in 1914 the event was put on pause because of something called world War 1. In 1919 Joseph Beek continued the event was back on and excluding a couple years for world war 2, the tournament of lights was held every year until 1949 because the old people were wary of the spectacle attracting so much foot traffic near the harbor. "But Disco this doesn't sound Christmas at all still, it's celebrated on July 4th you idiot" You might think and to that I say screw you buddy because in 1946 a separate group of people started attaching a Christmas tree to a decorated boat to float around on christmas and in later years Joseph Beek and his family were in charge of using their boats for the tree. Gradually more boats also decorated in lights would follow Joseph Beek's boat and the tradition would be come to be known as the Newport Beach Christmas Parade that features over 100+ vessels each year in Southern California, completely free to the public

The flowerhorn fish found a place in the hearts of the Taiwanese, who considered them harbingers of prosperity. Soon enough, a feng shui connect was established. The nuchal hump, or protruding forehead resembled the forehead of the Chinese God of longevity. Some of the fish's body parts matched other divine creatures, elevating its importance. The black markings on the sides sometimes look like Chinese alphabets. Its brightly colored appearance made it an attractive and coveted fish. Aggressive at first, these fish form a deep bond with their owners over a period as they get tamed, especially when the owners feed them with their hands. Its red eyes were known to cast the evil spirits away.

A siphonophore is not a single animal. It is a colony of four kinds of zooids. Zooids are very small, highly modified individuals. All the zooids in a colony are genetically identical. These zooids are specialized polyps and medusoids. Though structurally similar to other cnidarians, the zooids do not live by themselves: they are attached to each other. Each type of zooid is not self-sufficient. It depends for survival on the others doing what it cannot do by itself. So close do the zooids fit together that the colony looks like a single individual. It was a triumph of 19th century biology to discover the real nature of the siphonophores.

Since 2004, scientists worldwide have discovered 32 species of Osedax occurring at depths from 10 to 4000 meters. Various species are capable of colonizing a broad array of bones from fish, marine mammals, birds, turtles, and terrestrial mammals. These worms can consume bones very quickly, removing visual evidence of a sunken whale skeleton in as little as a decade. Osedax studies have led to new insights regarding carbon recycling on the ocean floor. Large food falls, like a whale carcass provides a huge pulse of food in an environment that tends to be food limited. The carcasses attract scavengers like sharks, hagfish, crabs, and smaller crustaceans such as amphipods who quickly consume the flesh. The exposed bones are then available to Osedax worms and bone-eating snails that digest the minerals and with the help of free-living and symbiotic microbes and consume the remaining organic compounds. Scientists have only begun to understand the ways in which carbon is recycled in the world's oceans and its relevance to climate change.

Atlantic bluefin tuna use a mechanism referred to as countercurrent exchange to keep its core muscles warm and prevent the loss of heat when swimming. Counter current exchange is the mechanism in which oxygen enters the blood in fish. Blood flows in the opposite direction to the water that flows over the fish's gills. Fish gills have gill filaments and these filaments have protrusions called lamellae which the water flows over. The lamellae increase the surface area of the gills meaning that there is a larger area for the oxygen to diffuse over. With the counter current exchange system the water is always richer in oxygen than in the blood therefore maintaining the concentration gradient. The oxygen then diffuses into the blood capillaries of the fish.

In the 17th century, the Bishop of Quebec approached his superiors in the Church and asked whether his flock would be permitted to eat beaver meat on Fridays during Lent, despite the fact that meat-eating was forbidden. Since the semi-aquatic rodent was a skilled swimmer, the Church declared that the beaver was a fish. Being a fish, beaver barbeques were permitted throughout Lent. Problem solved! The Church, by the way, also classified another semi-aquatic rodent, the capybara, as a fish for dietary purposes. The critter, the largest rodent in the world, is commonly eaten during Lent in Venezuela.

Due to their extreme environment, humans have not been able to document them properly in the wild. Only a couple of rare underwater pictures have ever been captured. Nearly everything we know is based upon dead blobfish discovered in trawling nets. The photo below is thought to be a Western Blobfish, photographed by an remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) at a depth of approx. 1220 m, 70km off Barrow Island, North West Shelf, Western Australia.

The demand for real, sturgeon caviar is always greater than the supply. Female sturgeon only begin producing eggs after seven to 20 years, depending on the species. A beluga can take up to 20 years to reach maturity. A female fish only spawns once every several years. Caspian caviar is the most sought after, but trade in wild-produced caviar is heavily regulated by Cites—Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species—in order to protect the critically endangered species of sturgeon, making it extremely difficult to come by. When caviar is lightly salted it allows the naturally nutty flavors to shine through. This type of caviar, known as "malossol" is the best quality caviar but it is good for only a few weeks. Every package of caviar is the result of a detailed, manual harvesting process. Eggs are carefully extracted from the fish, washed, and prepared by hand to ensure the eggs retain their quality. The entire collection of up to two million eggs is analyzed and any bad eggs are discarded.

A Nor'easter is a storm along the East Coast of North America, so called because the winds over the coastal area are typically from the northeast. These storms may occur at any time of year but are most frequent and most violent between September and April. Some well known Nor'easters include the notorious Blizzard of 1888, the "Ash Wednesday" storm of March 1962, the New England Blizzard of February 1978, the March 1993 "Superstorm" and the recent Boston snowstorms of January and February 2015. Past Nor'easters have been responsible for billions of dollars in damage, severe economic, transportation and human disruption, and in some cases, disastrous coastal flooding. Damage from the worst storms can exceed a billion dollars. During winter, the polar jet stream transports cold Arctic air southward across the plains of Canada and the United States, then eastward toward the Atlantic Ocean where warm air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic tries to move northward. The warm waters of the Gulf Stream help keep the coastal waters relatively mild during the winter, which in turn helps warm the cold winter air over the water. This difference in temperature between the warm air over the water and cold Arctic air over the land is the fuel that feeds Nor'easters.

Coral reefs can be divided into three types: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Fringing reefs are close to shore, whereas a barrier reef will lie further out to sea. Often, atolls will be mistaken for islands because they are so large and generally appear on the rim of a lagoon.

Red algae living on the Greenland ice sheet account for 5 to 10 per cent of the ice sheet's shrinkage. The algae turn the snow pink when the slightest melt occurs. This "watermelon snow" absorbs light, which heats the snow, and creates a feedback loop that hastens the disappearance of snow.

Kelp harvesting during World War I peaked in 1919 when 400,000 wet tons were used to make potash for gunpowder and fertilizer. In the 1930s the food, pharmaceutical, and scientific communities began extracting algin, a thickening, stabilizing, suspending, and gelling agent. Algin is an additive used in a wide variety of dairy products, frozen foods, cakes, puddings, salad dressings, shampoos, and toothpastes. It smoothes and thickens ice cream, emulsifies salad dressing, and keeps pigments uniformly mixed in paints and cosmetics. Additionally, some mariculture farms hand-harvest kelp to feed abalone. In the 1980's alone, kelp harvesting supported an industry worth more than $40 million a year, and in 1993, more than 4,700 wet tons of kelp were extracted from the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

Certain species of tropical fish carry fertilised eggs in their mouths and continue to hold the babies there for a while after they hatch.This can be found in both paternal and maternal members of the species. The following section will focus primarily on mouthbrooding cichlids from the African Rift Valley from the lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Once the babies have hatched they will feed on the remnants of the yolk for the following 25 days or so, after which the female will gather food in order to feed the young whilst they remain in her mouth. Babies that are fed ‘bucally' this way develop to be far more durable, faster and heavier than fry and although mouthbrooding provides a smaller batch of babies than other methods, they are stronger and will be more likely to reach maturity.

Because of their large, skinless pectoral fins, hawkfishes are able to perch upon fire corals without incurring harm. Actually hydrozoans rather than true corals, fire corals possess stinging cells (nematocysts), which would normally prevent close contact. Afforded some degree of protection by their living perches, hawkfishes seek the high ground of the reef, where they warily survey their surroundings like hawks. This is said to have inspired their common name.

Just as humans, viperfish appear to be using two types of photoreceptor cells called rods and cones to see. Both cones and rods contain light-sensitive proteins called opsins. Most vertebrates, however, only have one opsin protein which means they become color-blind in dim light such as the deep ocean. Amazingly, the viperfish has adapted to dark conditions and developed additional proteins, allowing them to see in color in their natural habitat. This can indeed make the difference between life and death in these extremely harsh conditions!

The Razorfish spends most of its time hanging vertically in the water column – head pointed downwards – mimicking the lines of seagrass or coral for camouflage. A cousin of the pipefish and seahorse, the Razorfish has a long, tubular nose and thin body. It has a wide distribution across the Indo-Pacific and into the Red Sea, Arabian Gulf, Papua New Guinea and southern Japan. It is normally found in a large school, to depths of 15m. Juveniles can be found along beach edges and hiding amongst urchins and crinoids. Also known as the Grooved Razorfish, Shrimpfish and Sea Snipe, this species is targeted for fishmeal for the aquarium trade.

Koi fish are symbolized according to their coloration. Black Koi represent masculinity. It also signifies a patriarchal role. Gold Koi symbolize prosperity and wellbeing in business. Blue Koi, often associated with the role of the son, represents tranquility. Red Koi represent strength and power. It also is recognized as the matriarchal Koi.

Puffer fish have four teeth, two at the top and two at the bottom, both fused to look like one large tooth, making Puffer fish seem like they have beaks. They use their teeth for opening mussels, clams and shellfish. Their teeth always keep on growing, so they need to feed on hard shells to help organically trim the teeth and keep them short.

Sea stars don't have a heart. They are designed in a way that they don't need blood instead they have a vascular system. They have a haemal system and the vessels form rings around the mouth, around the digestive system, and near the aboral surface. The three vessels in the haemal system of sea stars are the hyponeural haemal ring, the gastric ring, and the genital ring. Their heart-like circulatory beats six times per minute as per sea star facts. Sea stars have very little respiratory function. Some sea stars have no respiratory function in their vessel

Ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles living 145 million years ago, mainly during the Early Jurassic period. It is named 'fish lizard' in Greek by Henry De la Neche and William Conybeare. It was first discovered in the early 19th century by Mary Anning in England. The name for the marine reptiles group, ichthyosaurs, was first put to use by Charles Konig in 1818. Almost all fossil ichthyosaurs during the 19th century were attributed to the Ichthyosaurus marine reptile, due to which the genus had 50 species by 1900. These species were subsequently moved to separate genera and used interchangeably with other species. They were built for speed and paddled with their tails, fins, and short fingers. They were predators from the Ichthyosauria group animals that breathed air without gills.

When the Guinness Book of Records calls the Flower Urchin the most dangerous urchin in the world, you know you shouldn't be messing around with it. Commonly found in the Indo-West Pacific region, what makes the Flower Urchin deadly is its venom. The venom contains two toxins: Contractin A and Peditoxin. Contractin A can cause spasms and clumping of red blood cells while Peditoxin can cause convulsions, anaphylactic shock and death.

Of the 106 species of the fiddler crab, a few of the most common are the fresh-water fiddler, spined fiddler, and panacea sand fiddler. The fresh-water fiddler, also known as the red jointed fiddler's range extends from Massachusetts to the central part of eastern Florida. It also extends from the western central coast of Florida to Louisiana. The spined-fiddler crab lives along the Gulf of Mexico, from Tabasco Mexico, into the United States, as far east as Alabama. The Panacea sand fiddler lives along the Gulf of Mexico, from Panacea, in the Florida panhandle, to the Tabasco-Campeche border in Mexico.

Atlantic sturgeon live in rivers and coastal waters from Canada to Florida. Hatched in the freshwater of rivers, Atlantic sturgeon head out to sea as sub-adults, and return to their birthplace to spawn, or lay eggs, when they reach adulthood. The Atlantic sturgeon has five rows of bony plates known as scutes that run along its body and a snout with four slender, soft tissue projections, called barbels, in front of its mouth. In addition, the tail is like a shark's where one side, or lobe, is larger than the other. All of these features give the fish its unique look. Atlantic sturgeon are slow-growing and late-maturing, and have been recorded to reach up to 14 feet in length and up to 60 years of age. Today, all five U.S. Atlantic sturgeon distinct population segments are listed as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The populations in Canada are not protected species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The primary threats currently facing Atlantic sturgeon are entanglement in fishing gear, habitat degradation, habitat impediments such as dams and other barriers and vessel strikes.

Bream is a term that is used collectively for a large number of marine and freshwater fish that belong to different genera including Lepomis, Rhabdosargus, Gymnocranius, and Nemipterus. Although every fish of these genera are called bream and all of them belong to the class Actinopterygii, there is no relation between the fish species. The species cover a vast extent and they are present in various freshwater and saline habitats all over the world. The European bream species are the most commonly acknowledged species of bream. The common bream (Abramis brama) is taken to be the representative bream fish.

The Tiger Reef Eel grows up to 140 cm in length. Its serpentine shaped body has a light yellow brown background color covered with a series of irregular dark brown blotches on the sides and top. The head is white and covered with smaller brown dots. Given that Tigers have stripes on them it is hard to understand how this eel was named tigrina. They dorsal fin is only visible towards the rear of the body. Tiger Reef Eel are usually nocturnal feeders and spend the days in crevices in the rocks. Occasionally they will be seen with their heads sticking out the crevices during the day. Even at night they are highly reclusive and disappear into a crevice at the first sight of a light. It is rare to see them out in the open during the day.

The male cuckoo wrasse builds a nest in rocky areas using mainly algae and seaweed during the breeding season. They look for rocks and clean them with their sharp teeth and then tie up the rock with algae and seaweed to give it a dish-like structure. Like many other fishes, the cuckoo wrasse is oviparous in nature. A female cuckoo wrasse can lay about 1000 eggs each season and this huge clutch size helps the population of marine fish to be stable. Cuckoo wrasse eggs are often targeted by various marine animals. The male cuckoo wrasse takes up the responsibility of guarding the nest after fertilizing the eggs.

The Ghol fish is known for its medicinal value and pharmaceutical companies are known to use the fish to make dissolvable stitches. It is scientifically known as Protonibea diacanthus and is a type of blackspotted croaker fish with huge demand in countries like Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. Its fins are said to have medicinal value as well. They are used in wine production in Sigapore. Ghol fish also contain many vitamins, minerals, proteins, that help in maintaining eyesight.

Zebra sharks are gentle fish that hang around coral reefs in tropical oceans. They spend their days sleeping and their evenings leisurely hunting around the sea floor and eating. Because of climate change and human activity, zebra shark numbers are in free fall. A worldwide effort is underway to save them, and there are small things we can all do to support their survival.

The tasseled wobbegong (Eucrossorhinus dasypogo) is a type of carpet shark from the kingdom Animalia, class Chondrichthyes, order Orectolobiformes, family Orectolobidae, genus Eucrossorhinus. This species of carpet shark is the only type in its genus. Tasseled wobbegongs are ambush predators who prey on schools of fishes and can attack humans unprovoked.

The Ide, also known as an Orfe, is a predominantly silver-white fish. It has a dark-colored back from which its name is derived from. As it grows older, the Ide eventually has some tinges of gold covering its body. Its fins are light grey although its caudal, pectoral, and anal fin have a tinge of rose in them. They have a long, elongated body with a square-edged tail though there's a slight indention that makes it somewhat appear like a letter "v". Someone illegally imported Ides into New Zealand before, they didn't last long however. Ides became a popular ornamental fish in Europe, particularly in Great Britain, now they're more widespread in England and Wales. They originally came from France which went to Germany and finally, into the Netherlands.

The spiny butterfly ray, also known as the giant butterfly ray is a large, broad ray that can measure to over 6.7 ft. crosswise, with a lozenge-like shaped pectoral fin disk, as they are wider than they are long. They have concave front margins with rounded corners. They have short and blunt snouts, high cone-shaped teeth with around 98-138 rows on their upper jaw and 78-110 rows on their lower jaws. Within both their jaws, there are about 10-12 functional rows of teeth, with a dental band using 70% of the width of the jaw each. They have a short and slender tail, about a fourth of the width of the fin disk, with upper and lower fin folds.

Muskie' or 'musky' is a short name used for the muskellunge fish and most muskellunge fish are found in the natural lakes of northern parts of America. Muskellunge' is a word from the Indigenous language Ojibwe in North America. It is a derivation of the Ojibwe word is 'maashkinoozhe', which translates to 'great fish'.

Mandarin fish (Pterosynchiropus splendidus) are also known by several other common names, including the Mandarin Dragonet, Mandarin Goby, Green Mandarin fish, Striped Mandarin fish and the Psychedelic fish. This species is best known for its ritual reproduction mating "dance" which only occurs during sunset hours. Females will group together at the reef and seek a male mate. The males then begin to court the females, the bigger and stronger males are more likely to be chosen. Males also can reproduce with multiple females in a night.

The Bigmouth Sleeper, Gobiomorus dormitor, is a member of the Sleeper or Eleotridae Family, and is known in Mexico as guavina bocona. Globally, there are four species in the genus Gobiomorus, of which two are found in Mexican waters, one in the freshwater drainage systems of the Atlantic and one in the freshwater drainage system of the Pacific Ocean. It has an elongate, cylindrical body and a large, broad head. The dorsal profile is gently arched to the dorsal fins and then slopes down to the caudal peduncle. The mouth is large and terminal with a projecting lower jaw, and this species has large lips and a pointed snout with a projecting lower jaw. All fins are spotted. The bigmouth sleeper is a brackish and freshwater species that inhabits creeks, canals, ponds and lakes. It can often be found inland, but also in coastal areas of fresh and brackish water.

Both male and female copepods can mate to produce what's called a "cyst." These cysts are egg-like structures that protect the offspring until they're ready to hatch. However, female copepods can produce these cysts on their own. These cysts may hatch right away, or some may fall to the bottom of a water source and remain until they're ready to hatch. If a body of water dries up, the cysts will remain buried until rain or flooding introduces water back into the environment. These cysts can survive for seemingly endless amounts of time, hatching whenever water is reintroduced.

Tornadic waterspouts are tornadoes that form over water, or move from land to water. They have the same characteristics as a land tornado. They are associated with severe thunderstorms, and are often accompanied by high winds and seas, large hail, and frequent dangerous lightning. Fair weather waterspouts usually form along the dark flat base of a line of developing cumulus clouds. This type of waterspout is generally not associated with thunderstorms. While tornadic waterspouts develop downward in a thunderstorm, a fair weather waterspout develops on the surface of the water and works its way upward. By the time the funnel is visible, a fair weather waterspout is near maturity.

The Asian Boneytongue is a freshwater fish found in the rivers of Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Myanmar. It is also called a dragon fish and is considered a lucky fish by the natives because of its resemblance to the Chinese mythical dragon. Boneytongues get their name from their toothed tongue on the floor of their mouth equipped with teeth that bite against the teeth on the top of the mouth. Adults have a stocky build and long bodies, growing up to 35in in length, and large elongate pectoral, dorsal, and anal fins. It comes in many different colors, most commonly green but they can also appear silver, red, gold, and blue in color.

Tetra is the common name that is given to the small freshwater characiform fishes. It is a type of fish that is very small in size and is the prey to many predators. There is no accurate number as to how many tetras there are in the world. Tetras are known as schooling fish. Some of the known varieties are Buenos Aires tetra, emperor tetra, black tetra, Mexican tetra, bleeding heart tetra, penguin tetra, bucktooth tetra, x-ray tetra, vampire tetra, blue tetra and more. They live mostly in groups and are found to be happy and stress-free when they are in their respective groups. When keeping these fish as pets, you should have at least five to six tetras so that they can play with each other in the tank as a group, or else they will get lonely.

In less than a year, the Nomura's jellyfish grows from the size of a grain of rice to larger than a person. It is one of the largest species of jellyfish, spanning two yards across and weighing 450 pounds—as heavy as a full-grown grown lion! To reach this size, the Nomura's jellyfish hungrily feeds on small plankton, using its hundreds of microscopic mouths. Equipped with lethal barbs called nematocysts, the soft body of the Nomura's jellyfish is not only protected from predators, but also provides safe haven for tiny fish that learn to dodge the poisonous weapons. Its toxin causes swelling, redness, and extreme pain, and in the worst cases, it causes shock and death. Its venom is composed of a cocktail of various things, many of these components resemble toxins present in other organisms like bacteria, bees, snakes, and spiders.

The reedfish, ropefish (more commonly used in the United States), or snakefish, Erpetoichthys calabaricus, is a species of freshwater fish in the bichir family and order. It is the only member of the genus Erpetoichthys. It is native to West and Central Africa. The reedfish reaches a maximum total length of 37 cm (15 in). It has an eel-like, elongated body without a trace of a ventral fin. The long dorsal fin consist of a series of well-separated spines, each supporting one or several articulated rays and a membrane. The reedfish possesses a pair of lungs, enabling it to breathe atmospheric air. This allows the species to survive in water with low dissolved oxygen content and to survive for an intermediate amount of time out of water. Larvae have conspicuous external gills, making them resemble salamander larvae. The genus name derives from the Greek words erpeton (creeping thing) and ichthys (fish)

The family of gunnels and various related species are called by different names such as crescent gunnel (Pholis laeta), rock gunnel (Pholis gunnellus), or butterfish gunnel. The crescent gunnel is named after the crescent-shaped markings on its body, while the butterfish gunnel is named by the fishing community due to its slippery body.

The emperor shrimp develops a symbiotic relationship with a range of nudibranchs and holothurians, or sea cucumbers. The shrimp lives on the surface of the host, which offers him protection from predators and an extra source of food. The relationship benefits the host, as the shrimp consumes any parasites on its skin. The shrimp doesn't stay still, but constantly moves up and down his host, looking for food from the substrate or that has been disturbed by the host.

Dolphin milk is extremely rich and fatty compared to human milk or cow's milk, and dolphin babies grow quickly over a period of years. Young dolphins learn to catch fish on their own, and they drink less of their mother's milk. A dolphin mother will always wean her youngster before she gives birth to another baby.

Only the male humphead wrasses have a hump. The hump is a sexual dimorphic trait — the hallmark hump is not found in female fish. Marine biologists believe that the size and the shape of the hump signals the genetic qualities of the male. The function of the hump is compared to that of the antlers, horns and tusks, with one exception — they are never used for fight. The older the fish, the more prominent its hump. In addition, as the male fish ages, its hump assumes a brilliant blue color.

Tarpon can only be fished recreationally in Florida. The majority of recreational anglers practice catch and release since the fish is not considered to be of any food value. However, anglers can possess them for trophy purposes at the cost of $50.00 per tag, per fish. Without this tag, possession is illegal. Tarpon are considered to be one the best saltwater game fish. Tarpon fishing brings excitement and joy to fishermen as they're known to give a good fight and can perform amazing leaps.

While some species of sharks are highly migratory, studies suggest that horn sharks have an extremely small home range of about 11,000 square feet. One was found in the exact spot where it had once been caught, tagged and released 11 years earlier, and the farthest any tagged horn shark has traveled is 10 miles. The scientific name heterodontus means "different teeth," referring to the fact that horn sharks have some teeth that are sharp and some that are used for crushing invertebrates.

Helostoma temminckii are popularly known as kissing fish, as they are sometimes found to lock their lips with other members of the species. You may also find them kissing other types of fish, plants, and objects in the tank, while feeding or bullying. Though the lip-locking act of these fish may appear as kissing, it is certainly not a display of love and affection, as in case of humans. It has been suggested that their lip-locking is a sign of fight for dominance. It usually happens in young males, who want to defend their territory or feeding areas. Such aggressive behavior is also seen during breeding season, to attract females.

The snub-nose eel, Simenchelys parasitica, is a small deep-sea eel, about 20 to 35 centimetres long. It has attracted note by being found a number of times burrowed into the body cavity of larger fishes with perhaps the most renowned case being two juveniles that were found nested inside the heart of a mako shark. This lead to the description of S. parasitica as an endoparasite (hence the species name). However, acceptance of this tag has been far from universal. The snub-nosed eel has been caught free-living more regularly than it has been found in other fish.

The waterwheel is a submerged aquatic plant closely related to sundews and Venus fly traps. Its leaves are in whorls and the leaf tips are fitted with scoop-like traps. It is a carnivorous plant that catches animal prey through an active trap mechanism - traps snap shut when triggered by prey. Traps number up to 200 per plant and researchers estimate that up to 80% of the traps may contain prey at any given time. These traps catch untold numbers of insects and other animals, giving scientists great concern about waterwheel's effect on food webs and rare invertebrate species. It is native to Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, Japan, Korea. It is listed as "Endangered' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In its native range, waterwheel has declined to only 50 confirmed extant locations today.

Like other fish, sharks "breathe" through their gills, which are respiratory organs akin to our lungs. As water passes over the gill's membranes, tiny blood vessels extract oxygen from the water. Carbon dioxide waste also passes from the shark's blood and out of its body through the gill tissue. Other sharks use ram ventilation; that is, they ventilate their gills by swimming very fast with their mouths open. Some sharks, such as the tiger shark, can switch between buccal pumping and ram ventilation depending on quickly they're swimming. Some sharks, particularly those that are not active swimmers, such as nurse and bullhead sharks, breathe using buccal pumping. This method gets its name from the buccal (mouth) muscles that actively draw water into the mouth and over the gills, allowing the sharks to respire while remaining still

Most wild seahorses are monogamous and some species mate for life. Searching for mates can be difficult and risky since seahorses are poor swimmers, found in low densities and rely on camouflage to hide from predators. By remaining faithful to one partner, the pairs have more time to undergo more pregnancies during a single mating season and, ultimately, have greater reproductive success. The pair-bonds of monogamous seahorses are reinforced by daily greetings.

Lizardfish, any of about 57 species of marine fish of the family Synodontidae, found primarily in the tropics. Lizardfish are elongated with rounded bodies and scaly heads. They grow to a maximum length of about 50 centimetres (20 inches) and are characteristically mottled or blotched to blend with their surroundings. The lizardfish are known as 'benthic' creatures. Benthic is just a fancy word for entities that live in the sandy, shallow bottom water of the ocean. The true lizardfish or those of the Synodus origin live under the coastal waters throughout the world.

Scallops have up to 200 eyes, and each of them uses a mirror instead of a lens to focus light. Biologists have known since the 1960s that these concave mirrors are made from crystals of guanine, a highly reflective material that can be seen in everything from fish scales to chameleon skin. Although these crystals usually form into bulky prisms, the crystals in the scallop's eye are perfect squares that—like a telescope mirror—create a smooth surface that minimizes optical distortions. Now, scientists have shown just how these mirrors work. Using computer simulations, they found that when light comes in straight, it hits the upper of the scallop's two retinas. But when light comes in at an angle, it hits the lower retina, enhancing the scallop's peripheral vision in dim light, they report today in Science. They also hypothesize just how these creatures make sense of images from 200 different eyes at once: a process in the scallop's "brain" that combines them all into a single, cohesive image.

Catfish have no scales; their bodies are often naked. In some species, the mucus-covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its skin. In some catfish, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes; some form of body armor has evolved a number of times within the order. In loricarioids and in the Asian genus Sisor, the armor is primarily made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates. Similar plates are found in large specimens of Lithodoras. These plates may be supported by vertebral processes, as in scoloplacids and in Sisor, but the processes never fuse to the plates or form any external armor.

Cardinalfishes are considered non-monogamous pairs. The females are promiscuous and are wiling to mate with multiple males. The Banggai Cardinalfishes are easy to breed once a mated pair forms. The females usually defend the male during and after reproducing. Cardinalfishes are paternal mouthbrooders, meaning the male keeps the eggs.

Scientists call a sea urchin's mouth Aristotle's Lantern. The name comes from the Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle who described a sea urchin's mouth in his book, "History of Animals." Specifically, he described a sea urchin's mouth as looking like a horn lantern, only with its panes removed. However, that later proved to be a mistranslation of Aristotle's writings, as explained by British scholar D'Arcy Thompson. Modern scholars now realize that Aristotle never actually meant to describe the sea urchin's mouth in that passage. Instead, Aristotle actually described the whole sea urchin, which resembled the lamps used in Greece at the time. That said, the term "Aristotle's Lantern," still remains in use among scientists to refer to a sea urchin's mouth.

The beautiful purple shell of the violet sea snail (Janthina janthina) is only part of what makes this gastropod so interesting. Otherwise known as the bubble-raft snail, the critter collects bubbles in its mucus, then uses its bubbly concoction as a raft for long-distance ocean travel. Floating is their only means of transportation as they cannot swim. They can be found in warm tropical and temperate waters worldwide but high concentrations of them occur in the subtropical Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans. (bubble raft pictured below)

Two species of Scleropages occur in Australian waters. One is the Gulf saratoga and the second is the spotted-barramundi (S. leichardti). Impressive in body length, the Gulf saratoga is laterally compressed, with a large upturned mouth, big scales, and barbels on the lower lip. These freshwater fishes have large, wing-like pectoral fins. Several reddish or pinkish spots are arranged in a crescent shape around the trailing edge of the scale, giving it a pearly appearance. It can be distinguished by the relatively straight dorsal profile and lower dorsal. This fish has its distribution in parts of Australia like the Northern Territory, Northern Queensland, the Adelaide River, and also in parts of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.

Warm water is a must for the West Indian and West African manatee species. With low metabolic rates and minimal fat protection from cold water, they stick to water that is 60 degrees or warmer. They may look fat and insulated, but the large body of the manatee is mostly made up of their stomach and intestines! In colder months, they find their way to warm river tributaries or warm water outputs from power plants. In 2010 at least 246 manatees died in Florida due to cold stress from the colder-than-normal winter. (photo provided by lle)

The expression to cry "crocodile tears" means a false display of emotion or insincerity. It is actually derived from crocodiles appearing to weep while eating their prey. This is because as they chew, the air gets pushed through their sinuses into their tear ducts and leaks from their eyes, making it look like they're actually crying. Crocodiles' eyes water because of the hisses and huffs during feeding, but not with remorse. And that's where we got the notion of crocodile tears from.

While modern medical knowledge has shown that bloodletting does nothing to help cure a person of their ailments, leeches do still serve a purpose. Hospitals around the world continue to use the critters because of some remarkable properties that are hard to replicate synthetically. Chemicals within the saliva of medicinal leeches contain powerful anticoagulation properties. This is essential to allow the creature to feed because it needs a constant flow of blood. In reconstructive surgeries, leeches are often utilized as these chemicals prevent blood clots from forming and ensure that blood flows into the new body parts properly. Without them, the new tissue could die because it would receive no oxygen or nutrients.

The British Museum in London, England has collections of old spearheads and arrowheads that were made with the stingers from stingrays on New Zealand and some Polynesian islands in the Pacific Ocean. Stingray spears could only be used one time because the stingers would stick in the body due to all the tiny barbs on the stingers. The stingers would detach from the spear and stick in a body.

Some people believe that the sound you hear when putting a seashell to your ear is that of your blood rushing though the blood vessels in the ear, but that is not true. It is the ambient noise that's produced when the air entering the seashell, The unique shape of seashells amplifies the ambient sound, which means that any air that makes its way through the seashell produces sound when bounced about in the curved inner surface. The sound that is produced sounds ocean-like but isn't.

The ragfish (Icosteus aenigmaticus) is a ray-finned fish of the northern Pacific Ocean; although a perciform, its skeleton is mostly cartilage, and the larvae have pelvic fins that disappear as they mature. It is the sole member of the family Icosteidae, and some authorities place it into its own order Icosteiformes. The ragfish body is scaleless and limp, because of its cartilaginous skeleton and its flabby muscles. None of the fins have any spines. The dorsal and anal fins extend much of the length of the body, while the pelvic fins are absent. The coloration is generally a dark brown, and maximum known length is 2 m.

The main diet of the siamese algae eater, as its name suggests, is algae. Periphyton and phytoplankton are all part of their diet. This is an omnivorous fish and eats small insects and dead fish and plants and keeps the tank clean of black beard algae. They sometimes even eat small baby fishes found in the vicinity. Basically, they enjoy eating anything that fits in their mouths. In an aquarium tank full of plants, the fish eats bacteria and any other microorganisms growing in the tank. Algae wafers and bloodworms are their favorites among the fish food, but overfeeding it will not solve the purpose, as the fish will stop eating the algae in the tank since the fish can eat all day long. Ideally, the fish should be fed just once a day

Handfish grow up to 15 cm (5.9 in) long, and have skin covered with denticles (tooth-like scales), giving them the alternate name warty anglers. They are slow-moving fish that prefer to 'walk' rather than swim, using their modified pectoral fins to move about on the sea floor. These highly modified fins have the appearance of hands, hence their scientific name, from Latin bracchium meaning "arm" and Greek ichthys meaning "fish". Like other anglerfish, they possess an illicium, a modified dorsal fin ray above the mouth, but it is short and does not appear to be used as a fishing lure.

The sand diver has a long body, a head that resembles a lizard, a wide mouth with sharp teeth and striking eyes. They also have pectoral fins that resemble legs and a fanned dorsal fin on the back. Sand divers can often be found partially buried in the sand, on shallow coral and rocky reefs. Sand divers are lightning quick when it comes to attacking their prey. They grab and attack their prey with their needle-like teeth. They feed on invertebrates and small fish. The sleek and quick sand diver is a master at camouflage. They are hard to spot because of their white to pink coloring that can mimic sponge or a vibrant reef.

Every blue ribbon eel is born as male. Juveniles and sub-adults are black with a yellow dorsal fin. When they reach adulthood, they keep the yellow fin but the body turns blue and starts developing female reproductive organs. ​When they reach their full size, they turn into female and change their color to complete yellow. They will then find a mate, lay their eggs, and die within a month. It is due to their short lifespan that the female ribbon eels are rarely observed.

Neptune's grass (posidonia oceanica) is a vascular plant, so contrary to the seaweed, it has leaves, stems and roots, and it produces flowers and fruit, but it is submerged. These plants make meadows, more or less big clusters which has leaves that grow up to the sediments. Leaves are in the shape of flat stripes that are 1 cm wide and from 10 to 150 cm long, depending on the season. Neptune's grass clusters make large underwater meadows, which are stable and long-lasting, but which can sometimes be affected by a delicate environmental balance. Posidonia oceanica is very sensitive to pollution, so it is thought to be a good indicator of water cleanliness. The increase in contamination levels on the coast has resulted in a decline of meadows. The building of purification systems and the quality control measures are improving the situation, but the meadows grow slowly and take decades to recover.

In Gisborne, New Zealand, a resident elephant seal, named Homer, had an infamous reputation for hooliganism. He used to routinely overturn parked cars in town and once even knocked over a restaurant's power supply box. Experts believed that Homer's energetic ‘rubbings' were actually ever-so-slightly misguided sexual advances.

Known as Fairy penguins, blue penguins, and little blue penguins, this species is the smallest of all penguins; a fully developed adult can weigh only 2.6 lb. They have a fragile and delicate appearance highlighted by a bluish color unique among all species of penguins. Little blue penguins are mainly nocturnal as they perform most of their activity during the night creating small groups of about ten members or less. They are not migratory and stay close to their colonies most of the time. Predatory birds like skuas, gulls and sheathbills are the primary predators of eggs and chicks, while introduced animals like rats, dogs, and cats can be a problem for both chicks and adults.

A boops boops fish has a lateral-long and a slightly compressed body. The scales of a bogue are sliver with white and yellow hues and the upper half of its body has four to five mustard yellow longitudinal stripes. The eyes are the most noticeable feature of this species as they are large, circular, and silver-gray with black pupils. The boops fish size can reach a maximum of 14 in (36 cm). The name boops boops is a romanization of the Greek boōps which means "cow eye." In most languages its common name refers to the fish's, large bugged out eyes.

Ruho is pure vegetarian fish; however, their food preference changes with the change in their age. The diet of rohu fry consists mainly of zooplankton, whereas rohu adults feed on phytoplankton and submerged plants. They also like to feed on bread, which is hence used as bait to catch them on a hook. In their organic environment, this fish mainly feeds by sieving the water with the help of their thin hair-like gill rakers. Since they do not have any teeth in their jaw, the fish feeds by nibbling the food using their mouth.

The spawning behavior of the California grunion is one of the most unusual of all marine fishes. They are the only California fish known to strand themselves on the beach to deposit their reproductive products in the moist sand. Females, accompanied by up to eight males, swim with waves washing onto the beach, dig into the sand up to the pectoral fins, and lay eggs. The male wrap themselves around the female and fertilize the eggs. With the next wave, the fish return to the sea. Spawning takes place from early March through September, and then only for three or four nights following the full or new moon immediately after high tide. Most females spawn from four to eight times per year, and may produce up to 3,000 eggs every two weeks.

Salmon sharks are opportunistic feeders. This means that they will eat just about anything that they can catch. Because the salmon sharks are fast and can tolerate a wide range of temperatures in the water, they can move around for their prey. They are named after their favorite prey, the Pacific salmon. But apart from the salmon, these sharks will also eat other kinds of herring fish, squid, steelhead trout, sardines, codfish, lanternfishes, pomfrets, mackerel, and many others. They may even migrate for food, following the migration patterns of their preferred prey. This shark's salmon-eating instincts are so strong that it will follow the salmon as it swims through the ocean to reach the rivers, from Baja California to the Gulf of Alaska

Pupfish are known to adapt to extreme and isolated environments that are difficult for other animals to survive. These pupfish species can be endemic to desert water pools, brackish swamps, seas, lakes, and estuaries. They are primarily native to North America, South America, and the Caribbean sea areas, adapting coastal waters of California and perimeters of certain western salt lakes. The Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish of Nevada can live in as little as a half-inch of water.

Flashlight fish, also called lantern-eye fish, are among the few species of non-deep-sea fishes to possess such organs. Bioluminescent bacteria create the light continuously, but each species has its own mechanism for decreasing the luminescence; when swimming, some fishes create a blinking effect by alternately covering and uncovering the light. They use this light in a rather brilliant way to confuse and distract predators, and also to attract food. They even use it to communicate!

The slimy sculpin is a nocturnal fish that usually spends most of its time on the stream bottom and seeks shelter under rocks and logs, especially during spawning season. When it swims, it sometimes appears to be "hopping" along the bottom because of its inefficient ability to swim. This is partly due to the absence of a swim bladder, which normally gives buoyancy to a fish. The fish has been studied in waters where there is current freshwater acidification. Sculpin were found to be less active and have lower rates of reproduction when found in these waters. For these reasons, slimy sculpin have been identified as a good indicator species for changes in acidification among lakes, ponds, and streams.

Spiderfishes occur in continental slope and abyssal waters of all oceans. They are some of the world's deepest living fishes, living at depths ranging from around 1000 m to over 6000 m. They occur in areas where the seabed is made up of ooze or very fine sand. Larvae are sometimes encountered in shallow water. It is a common strategy for the larvae of deepsea fishes to live in surface waters and descend to the depths as they mature. This is known as an ontogenetic vertical migration. This allows them to feed in comparatively prey-rich waters. Some species of spiderfishes are capable of splaying the elongate pelvic and anal fins allowing them to rest, tripod-like on the bottom, with the body raised above the soft mud. The elongate pectoral fins have an 'elaborate nerve supply'. These fins are held up and out to the side of the body and are used to detect water movement and to trap and direct towards the mouth the small crustaceans on which it feeds.

Wallago attu is a freshwater catfish of the family Siluridae, native to South and Southeast Asia. According to Malaysian folklore, the descendant of a person called Tok Kaduk cannot eat and touch the fish because the legend says that a long time ago, Tok Kaduk caught this tapah. When he cut open its stomach, there was gold inside the fish so Tok Kaduk took the gold, stitched up the fish, and released it back into the river. From that time, if the descendant came in touch with the fish, their skin would become red and itchy until they went to Kg Tua, Lambor Kanan near Bota to find the medicine. The medicine is the remaining gold from the fish, which has been kept to make the cure for the disease.

Roosterfish are an in-shore game fish and the only species in its family and genus. It is notable for its 'rooster comb' that usually has seven to eight long spines as dorsal fins that remain at rest atop its back. When it gets excited – and to attract its prey – it raises at an unbelievable speed. The roosterfish has an unusual arrangement of its ears: the swim bladder penetrates the brain through the large foramina and makes contact with the inner ear. It uses its swim bladder to amplify sounds.

In 1961, the city of Savannah, Ga. tried to dye the river behind its City Hall green, however, the best it could do was create colored streaks in the water. The following year, Mayor Richard J. Daley — a politician of Irish-American descent who was raised in a heavily Irish neighborhood in Chicago — had been hoping to turn Lake Michigan green for the holiday. Lake Michigan green was a bit too much to ask, a group of Chicago plumbers identified the right formula for turning a city river the perfect shamrock shade, and a new holiday tradition was born. And finding the perfect shade was truly a happy accident as the plumbers union's business manager noticed bright green stains on another worker's coveralls while on a different job, according to Ilinois's tourism site. That first year, the Chicago Journeyman Plumbers Union dumped 100 pounds of dye into the river, turning it green for a solid week. Nowadays, the union uses about 40 pounds of vegetable-based powder dyes that are more environmentally friendly and turn the river green for just a few days. The hue can last for days, depending on the weather. Every year, thousands of people brave the early morning cold to catch a glimpse of boats dropping dye into the river before the city's parade begins its march through downtown

The gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus), also known as the Australian smooth hound, flake, sweet william or smooth dog-shark, is a shark in the family Triakidae. These small to medium-sized bottom-dwelling sharks are found mostly in, but are not limited to, the area around the southern seas of Australia and is commonly baited and fished for cuisine because of its taste and market prices. Gummy Sharks are practically synonymous with "fish and chips" in southern Australia—and with good reason! Their flaky but firm meat is practically as sweet as the gummy shark candies named after them.

Scup can live a relatively long time, up to about 20 years, and are able to reproduce when they reach two years of age, when they're about 8 inches (20 cm) long. Individual scup spawn once a year, with females releasing an average of 7,000 eggs, which are fertilized externally. Their eggs and larvae are found in the water column in coastal waters during warmer months. As larvae mature, they settle to the seafloor and develop into juveniles. Scup migrate north and inshore to spawn in the spring, then migrate south and offshore in autumn as the water cools, arriving by December in offshore areas where they spend the winter.

Yves Bisson, the owner of Yves Bisson Sturgeon Company, hooked and landed a 10.6-foot sturgeon on Canada's famed Fraser River on March 6. He estimated that the massive fish weighed approximately 600 pounds. Bisson estimates the fish was about 100 years old. White sturgeon are listed as endangered under Canada's Species at Risk Act. It's mandatory for anglers to release them. As part of a conservation program managed by the Fraser River Sturgeon Conservation Society, Bisson tagged his fish before releasing it. The tagging program is done by 60 volunteers and 35 of them are professional fishing guides. Together, they've tagged more than 68,000 sturgeon in recent years.

The 950 different species of sea urchins live in water of all temperatures, warm or cold. Some species prefer to live in the shallows, on coral reefs or among kelp forests, while others find their home in deep, rocky seabeds. The Sea urchin population has grown by 10,000% in the last five years, which saw purple sea urchins ravage the coasts of California and Oregon in 2019. Scientists believe it could take 15-20 years to remove almost 100 million pounds of sea urchin from one large Oregon reef alone!

Banded sea kraits are active predators that specialize on hunting eels, which they are able to locate by snaking through crevices and cracks in the reef. They paralyze their prey with powerful venom and swallow it whole. Sea birds, sharks, and some bony fishes feed on banded sea krait. Other predators follow banded sea kraits and attack any small fishes that the snakes scare out of the reef while hunting for eels. an old wives' tail claims that their mouths are too small to bite a person. This claim is untrue; instead, banded sea kraits are apparently docile snakes that often choose to not bite, even if provoked. Some people, however, are bitten each year (most notably fishermen who accidentally capture them).

Feather stars are unstalked crinoids that live in both shallow water and the depths of the ocean. Their scientific name, crinoid, comes from the Greek words for ‘lily' (krinon) and ‘form' (eidos). Without a stalk, they are able to move ever so slightly across the sea floor. Using modern technology, researchers have recorded feather stars moving at up to 5 centimeters per second. Although this might not seem like an incredible speed, it is essential for their health and survivability. Their speed primarily depends on gender, native tendencies, and vicinity of predators.

In many species, females are attracted to large, conspicuous males. But among animals that mate with many partners, males that manage to mate with more than one female can increases their chances of attracting others, even if they aren't as conspicuous. The scientists published their findings in the journal Biology Letters. In some species of fish, smaller, less flashy males can win over females by flirting with larger males. Researchers worked with the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana. After witnessing this behavior, the female fish indicated their newly awakened interest by spending more time swimming near the images of the less impressive males. The finding suggests that homosexual behavior can enhance a male's ability to pass on his genes by attracting females that wouldn't be interested in him otherwise. Mollies aren't the only fish that exhibit homosexual behavior. There are documented cases of at least 15 different species doing the same. Whether all of these species do so in an effort to attract more females hasn't yet been determined.

Ilha da Queimada Grande, also known as Snake Island, is an island off the coast of Brazil in the Atlantic Ocean. The island is the only natural home of the critically endangered, venomous Bothrops insularis (golden lancehead pit viper), which has a diet of birds. The snakes became trapped on the island thousands of years ago following the end of the last ice age when rising ocean levels disconnected the island from the mainland. The ensuing selection pressure allowed the snakes to adapt to their new environment, increasing rapidly in population and rendering the island dangerous to public visitation.

The mata mata (Chelus fimbriatus) is perfectly camouflaged for its preferred habitat of slow-moving streams, stagnate pools, and marshes. With a carapace (hard upper shell) that looks like bark and a head and neck that resemble fallen leaves, this South American turtle is more capable of blending in with its surroundings, ready to sneakily suck up any fish that crosses its path. It has a particularly long and pointy snout that it uses like a snorkel, sticking it just out of the water to breathe.

When a female crocodile lays eggs (of which there can be up to 60 at a time), the temperature of the nest where the eggs are laid actually determines the sex of the baby. If the temperature is less than 32 degrees Celsius (89.6 fahrenheit), the baby crocodiles will be female and if it's above that temperature, they will be male.

We are all familiar with the famous monolithic statues of majestic Easter Island. Built by the natives in approximately 1400-1650 A.D. these huge iconic statues are scattered all around the island's coastline. Known as moai, the squared human head statues weigh up to 86 tons each, and there are about 1000 of them. All of them, except one, sit on the island's dry ground, but the one that is submerged off the coast isn't exactly an ancient wonder. Sadly, it is just a prop from a 1994 Hollywood movie starring Kevin Costner.

The pineapplefish, Cleidopus gloriamaris, is a species of fish. It is also known as the knightfish or the coat-of-mail fish, due to the scales on its body. Some people call it the port-and-starboard light fish, as it has a pair of bright spots that are like a ship's lights. "Gloriamaris" is from the Latin language gloria and maris, means "glory of the sea". Due to its small fins and rigid armor, the pineapple-fish is a weak swimmer. A nocturnal species, it may be found inside caves and under rocky ledges during the day. In the Fly Point Halifax Park Aquatic Preserve, New South Wales, a small group of pineapple-fish has been documented under the same ledge for at least 7 years, and another group under a different ledge for 3 years.

The giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis), also known as the lowly trevally, barrier trevally, giant kingfish or ulua, is a species of large marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae. The giant trevally is distributed throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region, with a range stretching from South Africa in the west to Hawaii in the east, including Japan in the north and Australia in the south. Two were documented in the eastern tropical Pacific in the 2010s (one captured off Panama and another sighted at the Galápagos), but it remains to be seen if the species will become established there. The giant trevally is an apex predator in most of its habitats, and is known to hunt individually and in schools. The species predominantly takes various fish as prey, although crustaceans, cephalopods and molluscs make up a considerable part of their diets in some regions.

You may have heard how some anglerfish reproduce via the males fusing their bodies to the females' until they essentially become one; the male loses his eyes, fins, teeth, and some internal organs and, from that point forward, lives off of the female, providing sperm when she's ready to spawn. Those fish are members of the suborder Ceratioidei, [or] deep sea anglerfishes, in which some species are known to reproduce by that means. Still, that's not the norm for those fish—scientists have so far only found parasitic males in 5 of 11 ceratioid families. (censored because scary)

The glassy fish is a small species of fish known for its striking transparent or translucent flesh. The body adaptations of the fish are see-through and colorless and one can easily spot the bones and internal organs of the fish with the naked eye. Indian glassy fish sold to hobbyists have often been "painted", which involves injecting coloured dye into the fish's transparent tissue to make them more attractive to hobbyists. These coloured fish are often called "disco fish". Inexperienced fishkeepers are often tricked into believing such fish are natural or that the process is painless and causes no harm.

The smallest shark, a dwarf lantern shark (Etmopterus perryi) is smaller than a human hand. It's rarely seen and little is known about it, having only been observed a few times off the northern tip of South America at depths between 283–439 meters (928–1,440 feet). Like other lantern sharks, the dwarf lantern shark has light-emitting organs called photophores along its belly and fins. These help them camouflage when they feed in shallower water: the lit-up belly blends in with sunlight streaming down from above. In darker water, the light attracts smaller animals, which the shark preys upon. It also has big eyes (for a shark) to help it see in the mostly-dark waters of the ocean's twilight zone.

Vendace is the rarest freshwater fish in Britain, found only in Derwentwater in England's Lake District. A 2008 survey found that a Bassenthwaite Lake population was now extinct. Scotland once had two vendace populations – in Mill Loch and Castle Loch – but both are now extinct. To safeguard the species, fish from Bassenthwaite and Derwentwater were translocated to two bodies of water in the Scottish Borders in the mid-1990s. Vendace were introduced from Bassenthwaite to Loch Skeen and from Derwentwater to Daer Reservoir. Both introductions were successful and this species has become established in both locations. Another translocation of vendace from Bassenthwaite to Loch Earn (Perthshire) was also carried out in the 1990s. A population has become established there, but is present in low numbers.

While diving in tropical waters, you may come across what appears to be a bed of seagrass gently moving with the current. But look more closely—you may actually be swimming among a colony of spotted garden eels (Heteroconger hassi), slim and straw-like fish often mistaken for plants, which live the majority of their lives partially embedded in the sea floor. One of many species in the subfamily Heterocongrinae, spotted garden eels live in areas with strong currents, where they sway together in large groups, feeding on passing zooplankton; there can be hundreds to thousands of eels in a single colony. Garden eels may be small compared to other eel species (only half an inch in diameter), but what they lack in size, they make up for in muscle. H. hassi uses its stiff, muscular tail to dig into the sandy seafloor, then secretes a slimy mucus that acts like cement to keep its burrow from caving in. When alarmed, garden eels withdraw tail-first into the holes they've created in order to avoid predators. Shy and cautious, they will slowly extend their heads out of the burrow once the danger has passed.

British lawyer Victoria Evans battled high winds, big waves and sleep deprivation to record the fastest female solo row across the Atlantic Ocean. After setting off from Tenerife, Spain, on February 11, the 35-year-old covered 4,740 kilometers in 40 days and 19 hours before finally reaching land in Barbados. Despite experiencing extreme conditions and encountering multiple problems along the way, Evans broke the previous world record by over eight days.

The Quilotoa Crater we see today sits within an extinct volcano and was formed during a massive volcanic explosion centuries ago. The crater was formed when the volcano's massive cone collapsed in on itself, leaving the crater in its place, which became a lake when it filled with water. The last major eruption here occurred in 1280 AD. This eruption was one of the most powerful recorded on Earth in the last 1000 years, with volcanic flow reaching all the way to the Pacific Ocean!

A highly valued food fish, the turbot lives along sand and gravel shores. It is a left-sided flatfish, with its eyes normally on the left side of the head, and it is scaleless, though its head and body are studded with numerous bony knobs, or tubercles. It reaches a maximum length of 1 metre (40 inches) and weight of about 25 kilograms (55 pounds). Colour varies with the surroundings but is usually gray brown or light brown with darker markings.

Sabertooth fishes (also spelt sabretooth) are small, fierce-looking deep-sea aulopiform fish comprising the family Evermannellidae. The family is small, with just eight species in three genera represented; they are distributed throughout tropical to subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean. These fishes are appropriately named for their oversized, recurved palatine teeth redolent of the saber-toothed cats. Sabertooth fish are usually a drab, light to dark brown when preserved; however, a brassy green iridescence is seen on the flanks, cheeks, and ocular region of well-preserved specimens. The naked skin is easily torn. The Atlantic sabertooth (Coccorella Atlantica) is the largest species, at up to 18.5 cm standard length.

Asian swamp eels lack fins and have scaleless, cylindrical bodies with tails that taper at the end. The mouth contains bristle-like teeth and there is a distinctive v-shaped gill on the throat. Overall, the coloration is variations of green, brown, and olive with the ventral side being lighter in coloration. In the U.S., Asian swamp eels are sometimes mistaken for the native American eel (Anguilla rostrata; but the Asian swamp eel is not a true eel and belongs to the fish family Synbranchidae. True eels have small pectoral fins and paired gills on each side of the head.

The kaluga (Huso dauricus) is a large predatory sturgeon found in the Amur River basin. Also known as the river beluga, they are claimed to be the largest freshwater fish in the world, with a maximum size of at least 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) and 5.6 m (18.6 ft). The kaluga is one of the biggest of the sturgeon family. Like the slightly larger beluga, it spends part of its life in salt water. Unlike the beluga, this fish has 5 major rows of dermal scutes, nail-like teeth in its jaws, and feeds on salmon and other fish in the Amur.

Northern Stargazers have an organ on their heads that can create an electric charge (up to 50 volts) that may stun their prey and discourage their predators. This electric organ develops when juvenile Northern Stargazers mature into adults. Marine bony fishes like the Northern Stargazers which possess this ability are described as bioelectrogenetic. Due to their ability to electrocute other fishes and eat them alive by camouflaging themselves before attacking, Northern Stargazers are dubbed as "the meanest fish in creation".

Close kin to seahorses, the leafy sea dragon doesn't live on tropical reefs, but in the cooler rocky reefs off south and western Australia. There, this rare fish, with its leaflike fins and frilly appendages, is perfectly camouflaged among seaweeds and seagrass beds. It can be difficult to spot among the kelp as it slowly sways back and forth with the current. The leafy sea dragon eats small shrimplike animals called mysids that live among the algae and seagrasses. A sea dragon's tubelike mouth works like a drinking straw; a hungry dragon waits until its prey ventures near, then slurps it up. Each day, a single sea dragon may slurp up thousands of mysid shrimp.

One of the smallest members of the genus Synodontis, the upside-down catfish is aptly named for its upside-down swimming posture, which makes it easier for it to feed more effortlessly on the water's surface. It is also known as the blotched upside-down catfish because of its spotted appearance. They are an extremely popular species that have been admired for countless centuries; their images have even been found in ancient Egyptian art. Although they swim faster when upside down, don't be surprised if they swim right-side-up for periods of time. This is particularly true when they want to graze the bottom of the tank for morsels of food. Upon closer examination of the inner structures of this catfish, scientists found that its swim bladder was normal and there was nothing unusual about the balancing organ of the ear, as it resembles that of other catfish.

Blenny is a common name for many types of fish, including several families of percomorph marine, brackish, and some freshwater fish sharing similar morphology and behaviour. Blennies are mostly small, usually marine fishes found from tropical to cold seas. They are slim, ranging in form from moderately elongated, as in some of the tropical species, to very long and eel-like, as in the gunnel and wolffish of northern waters. As a group, however, they are united by such features as a long dorsal fin and pelvic fins, when present, that are placed near the throat and contain one spine and two to four rays.

Both seals and heavy human smokers have high levels of carbon monoxide in their blood streams. While humans acquire it from burning tobacco, researchers think seals' blood carbon monoxide levels are connected to their deep dives. One study found that elephant seals' blood is around 10% carbon monoxide, which researchers attribute to the animals holding their breaths for about 75% of their lives. Exhaling is the only way for an animal to clear carbon monoxide from its body

The egg fish goldfish is a fancy goldfish breed which lacks a dorsal fin and has a pronounced egg-shaped body. They look like ranchu but without the swollen heads of ranchu, and a longer body. Eggfish goldfish are sociable, lively, curious, and friendly with their human caretakers once they get to know them. They do not like to live alone and would prefer the company of other goldfish.

Unlike many species of corals, lobe corals are either male or female, not both. They reproduce via broadcast spawning, where several individuals release their eggs or sperm into the water column at the same time. This method increases the likelihood that eggs become fertilized and reduces the danger from egg predators near the reef surface. Within a few days after the eggs hatch, larvae settle onto the reef surface and begin to form new colonies. Like most shallow-water corals, lobe corals have symbiotic algae living within their cells, providing the corals with excess energy that they make via photosynthesis (the use of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into food/energy).

The vampire squid is a small cephalopod found throughout temperate and tropical oceans in extreme deep sea conditions. The vampire squid uses its bioluminescent organs and its unique oxygen metabolism to thrive in the parts of the ocean with the lowest concentrations of oxygen. It has two long retractile filaments, located between the first two pairs of arms on its dorsal side, which distinguish it from both octopuses and squids, and places it in its own order, Vampyromorphida, although its closest relatives are octopods. As a phylogenetic relict, it is the only known surviving member of its order

The elusive golden weedfish is a cryptic fish rarely sighted due to their ability to mimic algae, specifically the golden kelp found all along the Great Southern Reef. The golden weedfish belongs to one of the six Blenny families, Clinidae. In contrast to the other 5, the Clinidae have a mainly temperate distribution. While some members of this family have a slender appearance and bear the name "snake blenny" and "eel blenny", the crested weedfish has a broader body and striking visual appearance. The majority of temperate blennies possess rich, highly variable colouration in shades of reddish-brown to olive, often with cryptic patterns; this suits their lifestyle, frequenting areas of dense weed or kelps. As a type of groundfish, these fish are often found in kelp beds or along the sand in pursuit of weed-dwelling crustaceans and small fish. Eggs are deposited on kelp for the male to guard.

The frilled shark and the southern African frilled shark are the two extant species of shark in the family Chlamydoselachidae. The frilled shark is considered a living fossil, because of its primitive, anguilliform (eel-like) physical traits, such as a dark-brown color, amphistyly (the articulation of the jaws to the cranium), and a 2.0 m (6.6 ft)–long body, which has dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins located towards the tail. The common name, frilled shark, derives from the fringed appearance of the six pairs of gill slits at the shark's throat.

The Spiny Lobster averages a length of about 12 inches, but specimens can get as long as 16 inches. Their coloration is usually a combination of horizontal bands consisting of white, pink, black and brown in a reticulated pattern. But they are famously characterized by their very distinctive markings of azure blue stripes on its body and legs and the bluish green tails. These lobsters have five pair of legs but do not have claws. Their antennae are long and white. They are considered to be semi-aggressive and usually do not tolerate each other, hence living solitary lives.

Seahenge, which is also known as Holme I, was a prehistoric monument located in the village of Holme-next-the-Sea, near Old Hunstanton in the English county of Norfolk. A timber circle with an upturned tree root in the centre, Seahenge, along with the nearby timber circle Holme II, was built in the spring-summer of 2049 BCE, during the early Bronze Age in Britain. Contemporary theory is that they were used for ritual purposes. In order to preserve the timber in the site from exposure to air, due to recent exposure of the remains by the sea, it was excavated in Spring 1999, and its remains taken to an archeological museum and then a maritime museum for preservation of the wood. In 1999, a reproduction was put up by some of the excavators, near the site. In 2008, after further study, a second reproduction was erected near the original's location. Due to controversy about the excavation of Seahenge, Holme II was left in place to be monitored as it is gradually destroyed by erosion.

The megamouth shark (Megachasma pelagios) is a species of deepwater shark. It is rarely seen by humans and is the smallest of the three extant filter-feeding sharks alongside the relatively larger whale shark and basking shark. Since its discovery in 1976, fewer than 100 specimens have been observed or caught. Like the other two planktivorous sharks, it swims with its mouth wide open, filtering water for plankton and jellyfish. It is recognizable from its large head with rubbery lips. The megamouth is so unlike any other type of shark that it is usually considered to be the sole extant species in the family Megachasmidae, though some scientists have suggested it may belong in the family Cetorhinidae, of which the basking shark is currently the sole extant member.

In most clams, two adductor muscles contract to close the shells. The clam has no head, and usually has no eyes, (scallops are a notable exception), but a clam does have kidneys, a heart, a mouth, and an anus. A clam does not have any of the five senses so they cannot smell, taste, feel, hear or see. The shell has 3 layers. The top one is called mother-of-pearl because it is a coating of pearl material. Clams have a burrowing foot that they use to dig down into the sand or mud to hide. If you go to the beach and see little holes that appear in the sand each times the waves go away, it is probable that clams made them. Scientists classify clams by how far down they dig and what kind of surface they dig into. Some burrow less than an inch under the sand, while others dig several inches below the surface.

The word beluga comes from the Russian word "bielo" meaning white. However, these white whales are born dark gray. It can take up to eight years before they turn completely white. The white colouration of the skin is an adaptation to life in the Arctic that allows belugas to camouflage themselves in the polar ice caps as protection against their main predators, polar bears and killer whales. Unlike other cetaceans, the belugas seasonally shed their skin.

The pancake tortoise is thought to be the fastest tortoise and the best climber, due to the lightness of its shell. Rather than ducking into its shell for protection, when threatened it will run for shelter in the rocks. The shell of the pancake tortoise is very flat, which makes it easier for the tortoise to right itself when overturned. They overturn frequently, due to their habit of climbing on and over rocks. These tortoises are surprisingly social, and get along well in a group as long as there is enough food for all. As many as ten tortoises have been found sharing the same crevice.

The epaulette shark doesn't swim, it walks by wiggling its body and pushing with its paired fins. They have adapted to severe night-time oxygen depletion or hypoxia in the tidal pools in which they are found.

While whaling is no longer considered as large a threat for fin whales these days (the species is still hunted in Iceland and Greenland, although with strict quotas managed by the International Whaling Commission), they're still vulnerable to other factors like vessel strikes, entanglement in fishing gear, noise pollution, and climate change. Fin whales require a large amount of small prey species to survive, which they strain from the water through baleen plates. A single whale can eat over 4,400 pounds of krill each day. For this reason, a threat to fin whale prey due to environmental changes and overfishing is also an indirect threat to fin whales themselves.

Dragonets are scaleless. The males may be brightly coloured once sexually mature, in contrast to the usually drab females. Most species are bottom dwellers, frequently burying themselves in sand in shallow areas. All dragonet species have a similar feeding mechanism. They exist partially buried in the seabed with only their eyes visible. This is a type of defense mechanism. They are also foul-smelling and foul-tasting which makes them inedible to predators.

The grey sea slug can be found around the British Isles and into the colder northern waters of Europe, and despite its name, can be found in a range of colours, including yellow, brown or purple at the base. It has a pair of rhinophores on the head and somewhat longer protruding oral tentacles, which help to sense their surroundings and provide protection. Even though this species is only a quaint 12cm long when fully grown, it can lay up to 400,000 eggs on the underside of a rock, in a pretty ribbon pattern, usually between January and August. The larvae then disperse in plankton once hatched and are usually found in deeper depths until they reach adulthood.

Atlantic spotted dolphins are found in warm temperate and tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean. They usually form groups of five to 50 individuals but sometimes travel in groups of up to 200. They are fast swimmers and often "surf" in the waves created by vessels. Young Atlantic spotted dolphins do not have spots. As a result, they can look like slender bottlenose dolphins. Their distinctive spotted pattern starts to appear all over their bodies as they get older.

Some lophelia coral reefs can be enormous, stretching for several miles and rising to at least 100 feet (30 m) above the seafloor. Lophelia coral reefs of this size may be tens of thousands of years old. Individual living lophelia colonies are extremely slow growing and are known to live for more than 1000 years. This species is commonly found down to depths of approximately 3300 feet (1000 m), but it has been observed or collected from depths of nearly 10,000 feet (3000 m).

Isopods are opportunistic scavengers, meaning that they'll eat just about anything that crosses their path, no matter how long it's been dead. Anything that makes its way down to their part of the neighborhood in the benthic zone is fair game, and makes for a reliable source of food, as long as there's no competition. While food is available, isopods will gorge themselves to ensure they have enough to survive until their next meal. As a bottom feeder and a scavenger, you may have to wait a while until something ends up that far down in the ocean. Besides carrion, isopods have also been observed to feast on small, marine prey items such as young sponges and small fish.

The Horseshoe Crab has 10 legs; four pairs are walking legs and end in a pair looking like little pincers. The inner sides of their 8 legs are covered in Gnathobase, which means little spines. They help tear up the food for dinner, before getting it into the mouth of the Xiphosura. Almost like how you might tear off a chunk of bread with your hands before eating it, rather than chewing on the loaf. The Horseshoe crab's fifth pair of legs actually has neither spines nor pincers. This pair is used primarily for digging into the ocean bed of sand, or for cleaning the crab's gills.

Scientists don't know exactly why narwhals have tusks—though they might be used to impress females or fight other males. But tusks are more than battle swords—they're packed with nerves and covered in tiny holes that allow seawater to enter. This gives tusks a sensitivity that could help narwhals detect changes in their environment such as temperature or even the water's saltiness. Clues like these might help narwhals find prey or survive in other ways.

Tiger muskies are the hybrid offspring of northern pike and muskies. They are usually sterile, less susceptible to disease, and one study has shown that they grow up to 1.5 times faster than regular muskies. They also have a "hybrid vigor", meaning they grow faster and stronger than their parents. Like muskies, they feed on fish and small birds, and they have a different stripe pattern that is much darker.

Argyrosomus japonicus has many different names, being called mulloway, butterfish, kingfish, Japanese meagre, or kabeljou, depending on where you are. they can be found in coastal waters, rivers and marinas in Australia, Eastern Africa, Pakistan, India, China, Japan, and Indonesia. These magnificent fish can grow up to 2 meters long, and are very fun to catch. They are a prized fish, as they are notoriously difficult to catch, while being easily accessible, so it's always worth a go if you're around their habitat.

Tridacna gigas is one of the most endangered clam species. Antonio Pigafetta documented these in his journal as early as 1521. One of a number of large clam species native to the shallow coral reefs of the South Pacific and Indian oceans, they can weigh more than 200 kilograms (440 lb), measure as much as 120 cm (47 in) across and have an average lifespan in the wild of over 100 years. They are also found off the shores of the Philippines and in the South China Sea in the coral reefs of Sabah (Malaysian Borneo). The main reason that giant clams are becoming endangered is likely to be intensive exploitation by bivalve fishing vessels. Mainly large adults are killed, since they are the most profitable often sold for their meat or as large decorative pieces.

The basket star has a five-pointed body that's up to a few inches across. An arm extends from each point. Unlike your average sea star, though, a basket star's arms quickly branch out. Each arm may have two main branches, with many smaller ones extending from each of the bigger ones. And the branches have their own sub-branches, with small barbs on the ends. In all, an arm may be up to a couple of feet long. The basket star feeds by anchoring itself to the sea floor and extending its arms into the current — forming a wide basket. Small shellfish, jellyfish, and other critters that float with the current flow right into the basket. The barbs trap the unfortunate prey, encase it in strands of mucus, then pull it down to the basket star's mouth.

The Ross seal shares a recent common ancestor with three other extant Antarctic seals, which are together known as the lobodontine seals. The other species are the crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga), leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) and Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli). These species, collectively belonging to the seal tribe Lobodontini, share teeth adaptations, including lobes and cusps useful for straining smaller prey items out of the water column.

Polar bears tend to eat animals with lots of fatty blubber which is why they prefer marine mammals. Generally, they do not eat arctic foxes and often (unwillingly) share food with them. This is because the polar bear will usually leave the meaty part of a carcass behind. Arctic foxes will follow polar bears and scavenge on these remains. Whilst polar bears do not normally eat arctic foxes when food is abundant, they must be cautious when food is scarce because the polar bear might get hungry and hunt it instead.

Sea spiders don't have the ability to spin webs; instead, they use their tubelike proboscis (nose-like structure) to suck the life out of their prey. The tip of the proboscis has three lips; some even have teeth. Once inside the proboscis, the juices are mixed with enzymes for digestion. Sea spiders eat sponges, jellyfish, sea anemones, and other prey. One group of scientists even observed a sea spider clipping off a sea anemone's tentacles in order to suck out the juices later.

"Pearl" from the Pixar classic, Finding Nemo, is part of the Umbrella Octopus family. She is a Flapjack Octopus (Opisthoteuthis Californiana) who is found nowhere near the shallow waters of the barrier reef in Australia. Real-life Pearl would spend her time in the deep sea off of the coast of Japan or the western USA.

Orcas are often called killer whales — they certainly have the size to be listed among those massive creatures. However, orcas are not actually whales; they are dolphins (and the largest species of dolphin, at that). Taxonomically, they fall into the Delphinidae family, which are oceanic dolphins. It is theorized that the misnomer was originated by sailors who saw orcas' ferocious hunting of large marine animals and dubbed them "whale killers." Then, the term somehow got flipped around over time.

Big Major Cay Island is an island in the Bahamas which, in itself, does not make it all that special. In recent years, it's become known as "Pig Beach" or "Pig Island" for the simple fact that, well, it lives up to its name. On this island, pigs have appeared and seem to be quite happy living there; they're undisturbed and fending for themselves. The nickname for this island has become more well-known than its actual name at this point. This island is completely uninhabited by humans. These pigs haven't been raised or helped by humans, or escaped from their owners. They've always been entirely wild because this island is uninhabited by humans themselves. There are no homes on this small island, nothing; just previously undisturbed luxurious beaches and a forest, which is where the pigs originally seemed to come from.

Despite their name, brain corals are completely brainless and are not as intelligent as their name implies. Their spherical shape and grooved surface of a sea brain resembles an underwater brain, but the animals within the stony exterior are simple invertebrates related to jellyfish and sea anemones. Brain corals belong to a group of hard corals, or stony corals. Their structure is made of calcium carbonate, or limestone, which hardens into a rock-like exoskeleton. These skeletal structures become cemented together to form a sphere that gives brain corals their shape. Brain corals grow very slowly as each generation adds to the limestone skeleton. Some brain corals can live up to 900 years. Because of their massive, sturdy structure, they form the foundation of coral reefs and can grow to 6 feet tall.

The pig-nosed turtle is the sole surviving member of its entire family, Carettochelyidae, and sits alone on a branch of the tree of life reaching back around 140 million years. That is more than 70 million years before the extinction of the dinosaurs! This unique freshwater turtle has many unusual morphological, ecological and behavioural characteristics. Unlike other freshwater turtles, the pig-nosed turtle has flippers, resembling those of a sea turtle more than a freshwater species. This strange turtle has a leathery shell, rather than a shell formed of hard, distinct scutes and has a long, fleshy snout with large nostrils, much like that of a pig, hence the common name of the species.

Like other anemones, the Venus flytrap anemone resembles a flower, but is actually an animal. It consists of a stem-like body topped with a wide mouth-like disk surrounded by tentacles. These anemones vary in color—they often have white or pastel bodies with brightly colored disks and tentacles in shades of pink and orange. They're unusual among anemones because they stand upright and yet are not fully anchored to the substrate. This allows the animals to be swept away rather than buried when the sediment shifts with underwater currents. If threatened, the Venus flytrap anemone can close its disk with the tentacles inside and retract itself so only the stem remains

Sea cucumbers are harvested for use in food and medicine. Sea cucumbers have catch connective tissue, which seems to magically go from being stiff to flexible in mere seconds. This aspect of the sea cucumber is being studied for its potential application to the health and repair of human tendons and ligaments.

Strange and ferocious-looking, the goosefish has fascinated people for centuries. According to legend, its common name derives from the belief that it could swallow a goose whole. Fishermen were often disturbed by the animal when they brought them up in their nets and sometimes referred to them as "sea-devils." They are flattened anglerfishes that lie still on the muddy ocean bottom and ambush their prey. Like other anglerfishes, the head of the goosefish is enormous in comparison to the rest of the body. It has a wide mouth lined with numerous bands of long, curved teeth. Both the head and body are depressed, giving the fish a flattened profile which enables it to hide on the ocean bottom. The top of the body is dappled to further camouflage it.

Greenland sharks, of the family Somniosidae, are hunted for food in Iceland. In modern times, many Greenlandic sharks used for hákarl production are purchased from fishing ships where the sharks were trapped in the fishing nets. The shark carcass is traditionally fermented in a shallow pit, with stones placed on top of the shark, allowing poisonous internal fluids, like urea and trimethylamine oxide, to be pressed and drained out of the body. The meat is then cured for several months, rendering it safe for human consumption.

Stickleback have become a favourite system for studying the molecular genetics of evolutionary change in wild populations and a powerful "supermodel" for combining evolutionary studies at molecular, developmental, population genetic, and ecological levels. The nearly complete genome sequence of a reference freshwater stickleback was described in 2012, along with set of genetic variants commonly found in 21 marine and freshwater populations around the world. Some variants, and several chromosome inversions, consistently distinguish marine and freshwater populations, helping identify a genome-wide set of changes contributing to repeated adaptation of sticklebacks to marine and freshwater environments.

Shells left over after lobster processing are usually tossed into landfills. So in an effort to make them worth something and keep the money in the lobster industry, a University of Maine professor created golf balls with a core made out of lobster shells. They're also biodegradable, designed for golfing on cruise ships or courses near oceans and lakes. The problem is they only go about 70 percent of the distance of a regular golf ball, so you won't see them at the U.S. Open anytime soon.

Seagulls are very clever. They learn, remember and even pass on behaviours, such as stamping their feet in a group to imitate rainfall and trick earthworms to come to the surface, dropping hard-shelled molluscs onto rocks so that they break open so they can eat them, and following ploughs in fields where they know upturned grubs and other food sources will be plentiful.

American Oystercatchers are the only birds in their environment with the ability to open large molluscs such as clams and oysters (except for large gulls that drop clams onto pavement). Foraging oystercatchers often attract other birds eager to share (or steal from) the oystercatcher's "raw bar," including Willets, large gulls, and Ruddy Turnstones. American Oystercatchers don't always win out in their battles against oysters and clams. Occasionally, a shellfish gets its revenge by clamping down on an oystercatcher's bill and holding the bird tight. When the tide comes back in, it can spell bad news for the would-be predator.

Kavachi Volcano has also been dubbed "Sharkcano" because in 2015, when the volcano was in a lull period of activity, an expedition to the area found there were two kinds of sharks, including hammerhead sharks, living near the crater. This came after a 2008 study found the volcano was constantly spewing volcanic particles and fragments into the water, making the environment acidic and "superheated," with temperatures reaching 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37c)

Ostracods are by far the most complex organisms studied within the field of micropalaeontology. They are Metazoa and belong to the Phylum Arthropoda (as trilobites), Class Crustacea (as lobsters and crabs). An important distinguishing feature Ostracods share with other arthropods is the bilateral symmetry of their body form. The paired body parts are enclosed in a dorsally hinged carapace composed of low magnesium calcite, which is what is commonly preserved in the fossil record. They are found today in almost all aquatic environments including hot springs, caves, within the water table, semi-terrestrial environments, in both fresh and marine waters, within the water column as well as on (and in) the substrate. In fact almost anywhere that's wet, even if only for a brief period!

The largest species of ribbon worm is the bootlace worm, Lineus longissimus, which can be found writhing among rocks in the waters of the North Sea. Not only is it the largest nemertean, but it may also be the longest animal on the planet! Uncertainty remains because these stretchy worms are difficult to accurately measure, but they have been found at lengths of over 30 meters (98 feet) and are believed to even grow as long as 60 meters (197 feet)—longer than the blue whale! Despite their length they are less than an inch around.

Otters are an essential keystone species. A "keystone species" is a species that is critical to how an ecosystem functions because it has large-scale effects on the communities in which it lives. Along the Pacific coast, sea otters help control the sea urchin population. Fewer sea urchins in turn help prevent kelp forests from being overgrazed. In California, research has found that sea otters also enhance seagrass beds, and in Alaska's Glacier Bay National Park, sea otters' expansion into the area marked a gradual return of a more diverse ecosystem and an exciting moment in colonization efforts.

When hunting, dolphins produce bubbles to herd their prey to the surface. They sometimes also use a hunting technique called 'fish-whacking', where they use their tail to hit fish and so stun them - making them easier to catch.

Geoducks filter feed using their long siphons to bring seawater down to where they are buried. They remove excess nutrients, algae, and organic matter from the water before releasing it. That process actually improves water quality and once they're harvested, they remove those materials from the ecosystem completely.

There has been much confusion about the lifespan of the orange roughy species. When the fish first came to the market, it was believed that they only lived to about 30 years of age. Later in the '90s, it was discovered that the orange roughy lived a much longer life than that. The average lifespan of the fish is now estimated to be between 125-156 years! However, much older specimens have been discovered in many places. In 2015, an orange roughy of 230 years old was caught in New Zealand, while in Tasmania, the oldest fish ever caught had a record age of 250 years! In comparison, the bowhead whale lives up to 200 years.

Even though the pokémon Qwilfish takes its name from the quill fish it more closely resembles a puffer fish. Quill fish have an elongated and slender body. Its body appears like a quill because the dorsal and anal wings are long and tall. The dorsal fins are made up of 90 low spines that are isolated and these are followed by around 190 soft rays.

Honeybees collect honey to survive through the winter, but bumblebees don't need to prepare for the cold because they die in the fall. Only new queen bumblebees hibernate and make it until spring — their naturally depressed metabolism gives them a longer lifespan than the rest of the colony. While wild bumblebees do collect sugary nectar, they always consume it before they have a chance to convert it into honey.

Beavers have a tremendous impact on ecosystems. Dams alter the flow of rivers and can flood hundreds of acres. Dams prevent erosion and raise the water table, which helps purify the water as silt builds up and breaks down toxins, according to ADW. As sediment and debris build up, carbon increases and nitrogen decreases. The chemical changes alter the type of invertebrates, and the new water source attracts new species of birds, fish and amphibians. Flooded timber dies off and a forest becomes an open water ecosystem. Over time, abandoned dams decay, and meadows appear.

Snake-necked turtles are a group of side-necked turtles with necks that range from nearly as long as to slightly longer than the shell. They inhabit the waterways of Australia and southern New Guinea and possess the longest neck of any group of turtles in the world. The neck is so long that it cannot be retracted completely beneath the margin of the shell. They are carnivores and prey on fish. When hiding from predators or stalking prey, the neck is folded against the body. When prey is close, the neck and head lunge forward, and the animal opens its mouth and throat to create a vacuum. Water and prey are sucked into the mouth, which snaps shut. The mouth may then open slightly to allow water, but not the prey, to escape.

Blue whale calves are the biggest babies on Earth, easily, and at birth already rank among the largest full-grown animals. They pop out at around 8,800 pounds (4,000 kg) with a length of some 26 feet (8 meters). They gain 200 pounds (90 kg) a day! Their growth rate is likely one of the fastest in the animal world, with a several billion-fold increase in tissue in the 18 months from conception to weaning.

In the Mediterranean Sea the spawning season lasts from June through August. Female tunas are typically around eight years old when they lay their first hatch of eggs. Males and females swim together during spawning, which typically occurs at night when 10+ million eggs are released from each female. This may seem like a lot, but each individual egg has only a 1 in 40 million chance of surviving and maturing into a full grown adult tuna.

The squidworm is measured to be nearly four inches long, quite sizable for a marine worm. It is named for its head that looks like it's covered in squid-like tentacles. This worm has an abundance of various appendages, some of which are even longer than its body. Eight arms are used for breathing, and two long, coiled appendages are used for feeding. Six pairs of sensory organs emerge from its head to provide the squidworm with the ability to taste and smell, and propulsion paddles are present down the length of its body to allow for upright swimming.

Crown-of-thorns starfish received their common name from the needle-sharp spines that cover their arms and body that supposedly resemble the biblical crown of thorns. Their scientific family name – Acanthaster - means almost the same thing. In Latin, Acanth means thorny and aster means star. COTS prefer their food alive – and luckily for them coral doesn't go anywhere fast. The starfish have an exclusive diet of stony coral, preying on the polyps that make up the coral's soft tissues. They project their stomach from their mouths, covering an area almost as big as they are. Their digestive juices liquify the coral beneath and the starfish absorb the meal. They then invert their stomach back inside their body.

Mature Northern Pike have few natural predators, among them Sea Lampreys and humans. Northerns skulking in nearshore shallows also put themselves at risk from bears, dogs or other land-roaming carnivores. But life spans for Northern Pike are not short, and they have been known to live up to 12 years.

Cownose rays get their name from their unique forehead, which resembles the nose of a cow. They are brown to olive-colored on top with no spots, and pale below. Cownose males are about 2½ feet across. Females are 2-3 feet across.The tail is about twice as long as the body. Beach-goers sometimes mistake these rays for sharks. When the rays are swimming near the surface, the tips of the wings sometimes stick out of the water, resembling a shark's dorsal fin.

Mimicry is a common survival strategy in nature. Certain flies have the black and yellow stripes of a bee, which discourages potential predators, but the mimic octopus is the first known species to mimic more than one other species, and the first of its kind to possess the ability of mimicry. It is not known how many animals the mimic octopus can imitate, but it is known that most of the animals that it mimics are poisonous. Some of the more common animals the mimic octopus imitates are the following: lion fish, sea snake, flat fish, and jellyfish.

Seal mothers and pups (as opposed to other pinnipeds) generally stay close together on shore and are not separated while nursing. Harbor seals are an exception, and mothers will leave pups on shore to feed offshore. Seal mothers and pups can stay in contact by sound. Harbor seal pups make distinctive calls that can be heard for up to a kilometer. When in close contact mothers and pups can identify each other by scent, recognizing scent from glands in the skin of their flippers and around their muzzles. If you see a harbor seal pup on shore, observe it from a distance and do not approach—its mother may be offshore. Seal pups are naturally attracted to moving objects that are bigger than they are. This can help a pup stay near its mother, but can also make a pup follow things that it shouldn't (like you).

Scientists believe that sperm whales and giant squid are natural enemies. While no actual battles have ever been observed, sperm whales sometimes carry round scars believed to have come from the suckers of giant squid.

The cusk eel family consists of over two hundred species of bony, marine fish found in tropical and temperate oceans all around the world. They live close to the bottom of the sea, ranging from the shallows to depths of over 6562 feet (2000 meters). The largest known species of this family grows up to about 6.6 feet (2 meters) long, but most species are smaller than 3.3 feet (1 meter). Cusk eels are not related to true eels, and can be distinguished from them by their ventral fins. Ventral fins are a pair of fins in a fish's pelvic girdle that help in controlling movement. True eels don't possess these fins, whereas in cusk eels they have developed into forked, barbel-like organs below the mouth. As with true eels, however, the dorsal, anal and tail fins of cusk eels are formed into a single long fin.

Peacock bass are a fairly sturdy fish, so catch and release survival rates are quite high if the fish are handled correctly. They have sandpaper-like mouths similar to that of a largemouth bass, so they can be handled by the lower jaw, using the same thumb-and-finger grip.

Though the Greeks called them "river horses" and you will almost always see hippos in the water, they can't actually swim or float. They sink their body into water. After this, they drop their body down to the ground surface below the water, then they run along the bottom.

Siamese fighting fish, also known as bettas, got their name for their intense fatherly instinct. Male bettas build a nest of floating bubbles, coating each one with saliva so they won't pop, for the female's eggs. The male fights off everything—including the mother—to ensure the safety of the eggs. One might say he's more than a little overprotective. The incubation period is short, however, with the eggs hatching after 24 to 36 hours. The male continues to protect the newborns until they are ready to survive on their own.

White marlins are part of a group called "billfish," a term which refers to predatory fish in the family Istiophoridae. As their name implies, they all have bills that they use to attack prey. But that's not the only thing they have in common; white marlins are all very migratory and are often found in tropical or sub-tropical waters. Other members of the billfish squad include black marlin, blue marlin, sailfish, swordfish and spearfish.

The cobia is not that dangerous, but they are aggressive when provoked or attacked. They tend to thrash around with harsh tail movements after being caught during fishing. Cobia aquaculture facts state that it is difficult to catch a cobia, but it can be done with the correct type of bait. There are between seven and nine very sharp and stout dorsal spines, which can cause injuries. So, to prevent that, special care should be taken while handling these powerful fish.

Pink maomao are a type of sea perch with a flat body and forked tail; the only indentation on their body is the eye socket. Their amazing pink colour is why they are commonly nick-named "Pinkies". Females are pink to red whilst males are pinkish with yellow spots and a large dark blotch on their dorsal fin. Not a lot is known about the pink maomao species. They can grow to around 50 centimetres, but a more common size is around the 28 to 30cm range, with a weight of around 1kg. Larger pink maomao can weigh around 2kg. Young pink maomao are rarely seen, suggesting that this species reproduces slowly and only occasionally.

The Arctic Chars are cold-water fishes closely related to the Lake Trout and Salmon varieties. It has many characteristics similar to the Salmon and Trouts. The Arctic Char's English name has been derived from the Old Irish term 'cera,' which means 'blood-red,' referring to the red color on its body. Arctic Char enjoys the stature of being called the world's most variable vertebrate. These fish species have a large number of morphs all over their habitat range. With the color variations, ubiquitous morphs, and the differential size proportion it can reach.

Tilapia is considered to be one of the most unhealthy fishes that one can consume. The foremost reason being the circumstances of raising the fish, which is often in an enclosed area. Moreover, the fish also has a reputation of being a food item through which humans can get mercury poisoning. Even though tilapia originated in the Middle East and Africa, the fish is now farmed and available all over the world. Compared to it, the rainbow trout is considered to be one of the healthiest fishes for human consumption.

The speckled trout is known to communicate with one another via sounds in the water. During the process the mating, males are known to produce loud sounds which act as a courtship ritual to attract the females. Moreover, they also communicate by vibration, and visually. They search their prey visually and by vibrations in the water. They also get a good sense of their surroundings (irrespective of being shallow water or deeper channels) by the vibrations they feel around them.

Wonky Holes are underwater springs exiting from the sea floor. They were given the name wonky holes by the northern trawlermen who used to lose their gear and sometimes capsize their boats. Wonky Holes spew out a lot of rubble etc., and deposit it all around the hole. This in turn attracts soft corals and sea ferns to grow on the surrounding seabed and then comes the baitfish, squid, octopus and then of course predators like red emperor and large mouth nannygai.

Tripletails are called this because they appear to have three tails, a consequence of enlarged lobes on the posterior fins. A peculiar adaptation, which may be a means of protective camouflage, is the propensity of young tripletails to turn sideways in the water and float listlessly, mimicking floating leaves. Tripletails are carnivorous and in the Atlantic are sometimes sought by sports fishermen.

Sea sponges lack the ability to move, so most of them stay still at the same place, forming reefs. A reef is often formed of several species of sea sponges, or it may even include coral or other formations. A sea sponge animal has to live their lives amongst all other marine animals that live in the same area. Some sea sponges are also known for getting involved in the process of photosynthesizing endosymbionts, where they produce three times more oxygen than they take in. Hence, the oxygen that they produce benefits the organisms living beside them. Some shrimps also live in loggerhead sponges giving them protection against other predators.

When the Ugly Animal Preservation Society was in need of a new mascot, they decided to let the people select one for them. In September 2013, over 3000 online votes were cast for the "World's Ugliest Animal," with the blobfish racking up 795 of them. It bested the proboscis monkey, the aquatic scrotum frog, and pubic lice for the top honor. According to the Ugly Animal Preservation Society, the blobfish gives a voice to the "mingers who always get forgotten."

Ghost crabs are commonly found on tropical and subtropical sandy shores across the world. There are over 20 species of Ocypode around the world. Ghost crabs are the fastest runners of all crustaceans reaching 3.4 m/sec and move more than 300 m a day when feeding. This has earned them the nickname "el carretero" or the "cart-driver" crab in Peru.

Irukandji jellyfish eat non-insect arthropods and other marine invertebrates. Irukandji jellyfishes diet shifts from invertebrates to vertebrates as they mature. To paralyze their victims, box jellyfish use venom. This venom is released into the prey as soon as the prey triggers one of the jellyfishes stinging cells (nematocysts). When the stinging cell is activated, a harpoon-like coil is released, which stings the prey, and the jellyfish venom then flows through the prey via the harpoon. The tentacle will then retract back into the jellyfish, dragging the prey in.

Zebra sharks are born dark brown with yellowish stripes. As they reach adulthood, zebra sharks' stripes are replaced by small black dots against a tan body. (To make it even more confusing, sometimes zebra shark is used as the common name for the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier.)

The common limpet is a herbivorous marine snail that lives along the rocky shores of Western Europe. As they live in the intertidal zone (the area along the shore between the high tide and low tide sea levels), these limpets are extremely well adapted to an amphibious life. The thick, conical shell and strong, muscular foot combine to offer the common limpet a formidable defense against predators both in and out of the water. Large crabs and sea stars are potential predators underwater and birds are a primary threat above. However, the shell is shaped in such a way that it is difficult to grasp and it is thick enough to be difficult to break. It also perfectly covers the entire soft part of the body.

Fireworks should never be detonated in the water since the concussion effect could kill nearby fish or other aquatic life. A common chemical that is released in fireworks is ammonium perchlorate, which is known to contaminate ground and surface waters, and can cause harm to aquatic creatures residing in the lake.

Despite global disapproval of the killing of seals, and numerous scenes of conflict between hunters and humane activists, hundreds of thousands are still killed annually. A recent EU ban on the importation of skins from harp seals is however a welcomed step forward in seal protection which should decrease the number killed each year.

Smaller mackerel behave like herrings, and are captured in similar ways. Fish species like these, which school near the surface, can be caught efficiently by purse seining. Huge purse seiner vessels use spotter planes to locate the schooling fish. Then they close in using sophisticated sonar to track the shape of the shoal. Entire schools are then encircled with fast auxiliary boats which deploy purse seine nets as they speed around the school.

A clown triggerfish possesses a poisonous dorsal spine that locks in place when this aggressive fish feels threatened. It is unlocked by pressing the second spine, which is called the trigger, giving the fish its name.

Despite protection from their strong, conch are still victims of predation by various species. For example, other sea snail species are predatory and use powerful enzymes and a drill-like appendage to bore a hole in the shell of others. Conch are common victims to several of these large species of sea snails. Also, various species of octopus will attack the conch, removing it from its shell with its tentacles and hard beak. Various crustaceans, fish, and sea turtles will also feed on conches, especially when they are younger and their shells are softer and less developed. Finally, nurse sharks will also feed on conches. Given so many predators in its natural environment, it is easy to see why it has evolved such a hard, thick shell for as much protection as is possible.

In the years after Finding Nemo was released, there was great concern for the few remaining clownfish found in the wild. The film ironically increased demand for clownfish in such a dramatic way that they were commonly caught illegally in the wild to keep up with the demand. Clownfish can normally be bred in captivity, so the impact ended up not being too great.

The Atlantic wreckfish gets its name from the habitat where it is found. This fish is mainly found in shipwrecks, caves, natural reefs, and areas where there are large amounts of boulders. The other names of this fish are bass groper or stone bass.

The moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) is a common jelly that is easily recognized by its four horseshoe-shaped gonads, which are visible through the top of its translucent bell. The species gets its common name for the way its pale bell resembles a full moon. People frequently encounter moon jellyfish because of their abundance and preference for coastal waters. These jellyfish do sting, but their venom is mild and considered harmless. Any clinging tentacles may be rinsed off with salt water. The venom may then be deactivated with heat, vinegar, or baking soda.

The flameback is a species of brightly colored sea slug (nudibranch), native to the west coast of South America. Like in most sea slugs, the bright coloration is a warning to potential predators that it is bad tasting and potentially even poisonous to some animals. The flameback is carnivorous, eating soft corals and other sessile invertebrates on rocky reefs. Like most nudibranchs, this species incorporates toxic chemicals or stinging cells from its prey into its own skin. This ability provides the flameback with a defense mechanism against predation.

Gentoo penguins have been known to make as many as 450 dives per day to forage for food. They can dive as deep as 200 metres (650 feet) and stay underwater up to seven minutes. Although they prefer to stay close to shore, gentoos have been spotted as far as 26 km (16 miles) out to sea. They are also the fastest-swimming penguins in the world, reaching speeds of up to 36 kph (22.4 mph).

Plankton are tiny aquatic organisms that cannot move on their own. They live in the photic zone. They include phytoplankton and zooplankton. Phytoplankton are bacterium and alga that use sunlight to make food. Their counterparts, Nekton, are aquatic animals that can move on their own by "swimming" through the water. They may live in the photic or aphotic zone. They feed on plankton or other nekton. Examples of nekton include fish and shrimp.

Pufferfish diets can vary depending on their environment. Traditionally, their diet consists mostly of algae and small invertebrates. They can survive on a completely vegetarian diet if their environment is lacking resources, but prefer an omnivorous food selection. Larger species of pufferfish are able to use their beak-like front teeth to break open clams, mussels, and other shellfish. Some species of pufferfish have also been known to enact various hunting techniques ranging from ambush to open-water hunting.

Quagga mussels are extremely effective filter feeders, removing large amounts of phytoplankton and suspended particulates from the water. A single mussel is capable of filtering over a liter of water each day. The spread of quagga mussels has been aided by their prolific breeding, with a single female producing up to one million eggs per year.

The cushion star is a sea star that gets its common name from its inflated, pillow-like appearance. This species lives on coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific, and its species name (Culcita novaeguineae) reflects its discovery and commonness in New Guinea. Juveniles look like typical sea stars, but as the cushion star grows, it becomes more inflated and the arms grow together, eventually reaching a point where they are almost no longer discernible. On the underside, however, the cushion star clearly shows its five-part symmetry, particularly near the mouth.

Hector's dolphins have one of the most restricted ranges of all dolphins; they live only in some coastal areas of New Zealand and nowhere else. They prefer shallow waters less than 100m (328ft) deep and 16km (just under 10 miles) from New Zealand’s shore. Preferring to stick to where they know, individual dolphins usually cover an area of about 50km of coastline, and scientists have recorded the same individuals in the same general area year-round for over 20 years. These days, their distribution is patchy around New Zealand’s coast – a stark reminder of the difficulties they face. Due to a major decline in numbers, only small, fractured populations remain.

When the first platypus specimen was sent back to England from Australia in the late 18th century, the scientists who examined it thought that someone was playing a trick on them. "It naturally excites the idea of some deceptive preparation by artificial means", zoologist George Shaw wrote in the first scientific description of the platypus, published in 1799. One of the most remarkable and weird aspects of the platypus—its ability to lay eggs—wasn't discovered for another 100 years.

Sea otters have the thickest fur of any animal. Their fur contains between 600,000 to 1,000,000 hair follicles per square inch. Unlike most other marine mammals, otters lack a blubber layer. Instead, they depend on their dense, water-resistant fur to provide insulation. To keep warm, sea otters spend a large portion of their days grooming and conditioning their fur. This traps air and heat next to their skin.

Florida-strain largemouth bass grow faster than their northern counterparts. Florida-strain largemouth bass generally reach a weight of about 10 pounds in 8 years. A Northern-strain largemouth, in contrast, would generally weigh about 5 pounds at the same age.

As larvae, sea urchins have bilateral symmetry, meaning you can split their bodies into two halves that mirror each other. After becoming adults, though, they develop 5-fold symmetry, meaning you can split their bodies into five sections that mirror each other.

In the wild Corydora are found in the shallow and murky parts of small streams, rivers, marshes and ponds primarily in South America. Due to the nature of murky waters, they tend to have very little flow and contain low levels of oxygen. As a result, the Corydora will often swim to the surface of the water, ingest some air and then re-submerge itself. Fish and catfish get their oxygen from the water with their gills. Species like the Corydora have evolved in order to gain the ability to thrive in low oxygen environments. This gives them access to food sources that most other species without these abilities do not have access to.

The ocean twilight zone is a layer of water that stretches around the globe. It lies 200 to 1,000 meters (about 650 to 3,300 feet) below the ocean surface, just beyond the reach of sunlight. It is also known as the midwater or mesopelagic. Animals in the twilight zone range in size from microscopic to among the largest on the planet. Some organisms spend their lives in its shadowy depths, while others travel to and from the surface every day in the largest animal migration on Earth. Animals in the twilight zone help support the ocean’s food web and transport huge amounts of carbon from surface waters into the deep ocean, helping to regulate global climate.

Kelpfishes are known to change colors to adapt to their surroundings, they do this to hunt their prey, which is other small fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, or to avoid becoming prey to bigger fish. Kelpfish do not grow very big, only about 8-16 in (20-40cm), but Giant Kelpfish are known to grow up to 31 ft (80 cm) in length. The large Kelpfish species (Chironemus marmoratus), is called 'hiwihiwi' in New Zealand.

Until they spawn, kokanees are mostly silver, with a dark blue or silver back. There are small spots along the back and the tail. Spawning fish undergo a remarkable transformation, as the body turns bright red and the head a dark green. Male kokanees also develop a pronounced hump on the back and a fierce-looking hooked kype.

In spring and summer, thousands of puffins gather in colonies on the coasts and islands of the North Atlantic Ocean to breed. They usually pair up with the same partner as previous years – some may have been together for 20 years!

Lake trout typically spend most of their time in deep water. This is one of the primary reasons why they can be extremely elusive to anglers. However, do you really know why they like to be deep? The answer, in most bodies of water is that the lake trout are following the thermocline which is a temperature gradient in the water. If you’ve ever been on a big deep lake and you see a mess of interference on your sonar, chances are you could be looking at the thermocline. Lake trout typically like to hangout just under the thermocline where there is colder, more oxygenated water, and most forage such as ciscos. Therefore, especially in summer, if you’re looking for lake trout in a deep lake, look for the thermocline on your sonar and you might get lucky.

The Blind Shark is able to remain out of water for extended periods of time (up to 18 hours), this apparent hardiness implies that the species could survive trawl capture more readily than other species if successfully returned to the water. The blind shark is likely to occur in a number of marine protected areas including Queensland’s Moreton Bay Marine Park and several marine parks in New South Wales.

Most mackerel live offshore in the oceanic environment but a few, like the Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus), enter bays and can be caught near bridges and piers. Mackerels are prized (and are highly harvested) for their meat, which is often very oily. They are known for their fighting ability, and are an important recreational and commercial fishery. The meat can spoil quickly, especially in the tropics, causing scombroid food poisoning - it must be eaten on the day of capture, unless cured. For this reason, mackerel is the only common salt-cured sushi.

Doctor fish are used for foot cleaning in salons, but as they cannot be cleaned after each use, some people question the hygiene of the practice and call it unsanitary. As a result, they were banned due to public health concerns in several states of the United States and Canadian provinces. These states include Texas, New York, New Jersey, California, Washington, Maine, Massachusetts.

Tope sharks, Galeorhinus galeus, are ovoviviparous (fertilized eggs develop in the female without a yolk-sac placenta). Litter size ranges from 6-52 pups and increases according to the size of the mother. Newborn pups measure 30-36 cm at birth. In Australia, newborns and juveniles aggregate in nurseries found in shallow waters and move into deeper coastal waters during winter after which they return to the nursing grounds.

The Buri (yellowtail) is called by different names depending on its stage of growth. This parallels a custom among warrior and aristocratic families in premodern Japan of conferring adult names to children after their coming-of-age ceremony. Sixteenth-century warlord Oda Nobunaga, for example, was known as Kippōshi as a child, and Takechiyo was the childhood name of Tokugawa Ieyasu—founder of the Tokugawa shogunate. Fish that take on different names as they grow were considered propitious and served when giving someone a sendoff. Before becoming buri, the fish is called wakashi, inada, and warasa in eastern Japan and tsubasu, hamachi, and mejiro in western Japan. Buri is a name reserved for fish over 80 centimeters, while hamachi is used in the west for smaller, cultivated buri. In English, it is called yellowtail or, sometimes, Japanese amberjack.

Requiem Sharks are incredibly fast and effective hunters. Their elongated, torpedo-shaped bodies make them quick and agile swimmers, so they can easily attack any prey. They have a range of food sources depending on their location and species that includes bony fish, squids, octopuses, lobsters, turtles, marine mammals, seabirds, other sharks, and rays. Requiem Sharks are often considered the "garbage cans" of the sea because they will eat almost anything, even non-food items like trash.

The Dead Sea is a popular tourist destination for many reasons, one of which is its medicinal values. The water of the Dead Sea contains 26 beneficial minerals, and the air contains minimal amounts of dust and allergens compared to other places in the world. Apart from dipping in the sea and in sulfur-rich pools in the surrounding spa resorts, many rub themselves with the black mud found at its banks, which is said to relief different skin issues.

The Lithogenes wahari has some incredible adaptations for living in the fast moving water. It possesses a set of highly developed pelvic fins that resemble legs and a large strong mouth both of which allow the fish to cling and even climb up rocks to stay put in the powerful current. Indeed, when American Museum of Natural History ichthyologist Scott Schaefer tracked the climbing catfish to a tributary of the Orinoco River, he merely had to pluck the specimens off the rocks where they were hanging on tight.

Electric rays are a group of rays that can produce an electric discharge, ranging from as little as 8 volts up to 220 volts depending on species. There are 69 species in four subfamilies. These rays have battery-like electric organs on both sides of their heads, which can make a powerful electric shock. They use this shock to stun their prey and for their own self defense.

For many male mudskippers, finding a mate is all about how high he can fly. Despite the muddy and not-so-romantic environment, a high jump can get him noticed in the mudskipper dating pool. Amazingly, these fish can jump up to two feet above the mud, all in the name of love. Mudskippers are also quite territorial, so spotting a duel between a couple of mudskippers is not uncommon if a neighbor gets too close. The skirmish typically includes their mouths gaping open and their dorsal fins being raised while they leap towards each other in aggression; some species of mudskipper even let out a fish equivalent to a battle cry.

A Mongolian legend tells of a giant Taimen trapped in river ice. Starving herders were able to survive the winter by hacking off pieces of its flesh. In the spring, the ice melted, and the giant Taimen climbed onto the land, tracked down the herders, and ate them all.

Tiger barbs have a strong need to be in large groups. They are highly social and will only thrive when kept in groups of eight or more. A school of tiger barb fish will develop a pecking order, similar to a pack of wolves or a pod of dolphins. If you learn to discern the differences between your tiger barbs, you will see that they eat in the exact same order every time.

Rohu is a pure vegetarian fish; however, their food preference changes with the change in their age. The diet of rohu fry consists mainly of zooplankton, whereas rohu adults feed on phytoplankton and submerged plants. They also like to feed on bread, which is hence used as bait to catch them on a hook. In their organic environment, this fish mainly feeds by sieving the water with the help of their thin hair-like gill rakers. Since they do not have any teeth in their jaw, the fish feeds by nibbling the food using their mouth.

Cisco are sometimes called the "canaries of cold water." They do not tolerate warm water or low oxygen levels and have declined in, or disappeared from, over 20 percent of their native lakes in Michigan. Development and other land use changes can lead to increases in the nutrient phosphorus. Increased nutrient levels accelerate plant and algae growth, which in turn drives greater decomposition below the thermocline of stratified lakes, depleting oxygen required for cisco to thrive. Inland lakes that do retain high water quality are often stocked with trout, which also require cold oxygenated water, or other gamefish. Stocking predators or competitors is also recognized as the cause of cisco decline in some inland lakes.

The Asian Swamp Eel, was introduced by unknown sources to ponds at the Chattahoochee Nature Center (CNC) in the mid-1990's. The eels at the CNC are one of only five populations found in the United States, the others being in Hawaii and in Florida. It is possible that they were introduced when someone dumped a fish tank. Another possibility is someone intentionally introduced them in an attempt to establish a food source. As with any invasive species, the eels present a threat to native species by disrupting their interactions with their natural habitat. Beyond not being a part of the natural ecosystem, they have several traits that make it a bigger threat. They breathe air, and are capable of withstanding harsh environmental conditions. During periods of drought, they burrow into the ground. They are able to colonize unconnected bodies of water via overland migration. Because they are active at night, they are difficult to detect and capture. They are also tolerant of cool water, such as that of the Chattahoochee River.

It is entirely possible to use hot dogs as bait instead of the normal options of night crawlers, crickets, etc. Now it is not likely the fish will eat the hotdog but all you really need is enough time for your catch to get caught on the hook. This method is especially effective on catfish, carp, northern pike, and bluegill because they're all opportunistic feeders. If you are going to use hotdog as bait it should go without saying using the the entire hotdog per cast is incredibly wasteful and it's better to rip off small chunks as fish aren't picky about hotdog serving sizes.